Data for 819 pan concentrated stream-sediment samples, nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrate (HMC) samples, and chemical data for 93 of HMC samples is presented in data file geology_mineralogy_geochemistry_TaylorMtns_Alaska_Wang.csv. The samples were collected in 2004-2008 as part of a reconnaissance geochemical geological survey of drainage basins mostly in the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle in southwestern Alaska. Samples were collected from first- or second-order streams, as shown on USGS 1:63,360-scale maps. The data reported here are from hand lens inspection of the panned concentrate samples in the field, microscopic examination of the non-magnetic fraction of the HMC samples in the lab, and chemical analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-AES-MS) of selected nonmagnetic HMC samples. Details of sample processing and analysis are provided in the supplemental document Supplemental_Info_Methods_Collection_Processing_Analytical.pdf. For citations regarding other analysis and samples collected during the survey see the references provided in supplemental documentation Supplemental_Info_Citations_Related_Datasets.pdf.