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Are sturgeon and catfish related?

No. Although sturgeon and catfish can be found in the same habitats and they both have barbels (whiskerlike growths extending from the jaw), they are not closely related. Sturgeon are much more primitive than catfish. There are some catfish sold for aquariums that look somewhat like sturgeon, and some fish have common names that are misleading (i.e. sturgeon chub) but these fish are not related to sturgeon.