The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and local agencies, systematically collects groundwater data at varying measurement frequencies to monitor the hydrologic conditions on Long Island, New York. Each year during April and May, the U.S. Geological Survey completes a synoptic survey of water levels to define the spatial distribution of the water table and potentiometric surfaces within the three main water-bearing units underlying Long Island—the upper glacial, Magothy, and Lloyd aquifers—and the hydraulically connected Jameco and North Shore aquifers. These data and the maps constructed from them are commonly used in studies of the hydrology of Long Island and are used by water managers and suppliers for aquifer management and planning purposes.
Water-level measurements made in 424 monitoring wells (observation and supply wells), 13 streamgages, and 2 lake gages across Long Island during April–May 2016 were used to prepare the maps in this report. Groundwater measurements were made by the wetted-tape or electric-tape method to the nearest hundredth of a foot. Contours of water-table and potentiometric-surface altitudes were created using the groundwater measurements. The water-table contours were interpreted using water-level data collected from 275 observation wells and 1 supply well screened in the upper glacial aquifer and the shallow Magothy aquifer and 13 streamgages and 2 lake gages. The potentiometric-surface contours of the Magothy aquifer were interpreted from measurements at 88 wells (61 observation wells and 27 supply wells) screened in the middle to deep Magothy aquifer and the contiguous and hydraulically connected Jameco aquifer. The potentiometric-surface contours of the Lloyd aquifer were interpreted from measurements at 60 wells (55 observation wells and 5 supply wells) screened in the Lloyd aquifer and the contiguous and hydraulically connected North Shore aquifer. Many of the supply wells are in continuous operation and, therefore, were turned off for a minimum of 24 hours before measurements were made to allow the water levels in the wells to recover to ambient (nonpumping) conditions. Full recovery time at some of these supply wells can exceed 24 hours; therefore, water levels measured at these wells are assumed to be less accurate than those measured at observation wells, which are not pumped. In addition to pumping stresses, density differences (saline water) also lower the water levels measured in certain wells. Recent water-quality data are lacking in these wells; therefore, a conversion to freshwater head could not be performed accurately and was not attempted. In this report, all water-level altitudes are referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29).
The land surface altitude, or topography, was obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The data were collected using light detection and ranging (lidar) and were used to produce a three-dimensional digital elevation model. The lidar data have a horizontal accuracy of 1.38 feet and a vertical accuracy of 0.40 foot at a 95-percent confidence level for the “open terrain” land-cover category. The digital elevation model was developed jointly by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013. Land surface altitude is referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). On Long Island, NAVD 88 is approximately 1 foot higher than NGVD 29.
Hydrographs are included on these maps for selected wells that have continuous digital recording equipment, and each hydrograph includes the water level measured during the synoptic survey. These hydrographs are representative of the 2016 water year and show the changes throughout that period; a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 to September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends.
|Title||Water-table and potentiometric-surface altitudes in the upper glacial, Magothy, and Lloyd aquifers of Long Island, New York, April–May 2016|
|Authors||Michael D. Como, Jason S. Finkelstein, Simonette L. Rivera, Jack Monti, Ronald J. Busciolano|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Scientific Investigations Map|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||New York Water Science Center|