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Radial fracture patterns on Halema‘uma‘u's lava lake surface Kīlauea volcano summit

Detailed Description

Several areas of active upwelling on the surface of Halema‘uma‘u, as seen from the south rim during an early morning observational shift on January 6, 2023. As the lava reaches the lake's surface, it immediately begins to cool and radiates away from the source. This cooled lava forms thin plates made of lava crust, which grows and extends as it continues to be pushed away. When the thin plates radiating away from two sources meet, a line or ring of spattering will occur as they interact. This process is similar to what happens when two tectonic plates converge.


Public Domain.