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Explore our planet through photography and imagery, including climate change and water all the way back to the 1800s when the USGS was surveying the country by horse and buggy.

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Color photograph of eruptive vent
November 30, 2022 — Mauna Loa Fissure 4
November 30, 2022 — Mauna Loa Fissure 4
November 30, 2022 — Mauna Loa Fissure 4

Aerial image of fissure 4 on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone erupting the morning of November 30, 2022.  Fissure 4 is less active than fissure 3, but is generating lava flows moving toward the northeast and a small lobe moving to the east. USGS image by K. Mulliken. 

Aerial image of fissure 4 on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone erupting the morning of November 30, 2022.  Fissure 4 is less active than fissure 3, but is generating lava flows moving toward the northeast and a small lobe moving to the east. USGS image by K. Mulliken. 

Color photograph of lava flow
November 30, 2022 — Mauna Loa Lava Flow
November 30, 2022 — Mauna Loa Lava Flow
November 30, 2022 — Mauna Loa Lava Flow

Aerial image of the distal end of a lava flow from Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone the morning of November 30, 2022. As of 12:30 HST p.m. on November 30, the flow front remained about 3.6 miles (5.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). USGS image by K. Mulliken. 

Aerial image of the distal end of a lava flow from Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone the morning of November 30, 2022. As of 12:30 HST p.m. on November 30, the flow front remained about 3.6 miles (5.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). USGS image by K. Mulliken. 

map
November 30, 2022—Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone eruption thermal map
November 30, 2022—Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone eruption thermal map
November 30, 2022—Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone eruption thermal map

A helicopter overflight on November 30, 2022, allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be collected of the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa. Two active fissures on the Northeast Rift Zone are feeding lava flows to the north, northeast, and southeast.

A helicopter overflight on November 30, 2022, allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be collected of the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa. Two active fissures on the Northeast Rift Zone are feeding lava flows to the north, northeast, and southeast.

vertical plume of smoke coming out of lava fountain
Vertical Plume from Fissure 3 of Mauna Loa (Nov 30, 2022)
Vertical Plume from Fissure 3 of Mauna Loa (Nov 30, 2022)
Vertical Plume from Fissure 3 of Mauna Loa (Nov 30, 2022)

Fissure 3 of the Northeast Rift Zone Mauna Loa eruption with a plume of volcanic gases and fine volcanic ash and Pele's hair being wafted in a near vertical plume. Taken at about 7:15 AM on November 30, 2022.

Fissure 3 of the Northeast Rift Zone Mauna Loa eruption with a plume of volcanic gases and fine volcanic ash and Pele's hair being wafted in a near vertical plume. Taken at about 7:15 AM on November 30, 2022.

Color photograph of lava flows
Lava flow cutting the Mauna Loa Observatory Road
Lava flow cutting the Mauna Loa Observatory Road
Lava flow cutting the Mauna Loa Observatory Road

This image was taken on a helicopter overflight on the afternoon of November 29, 2022. It shows a lava flow cutting across the Mauna Loa Observatory Road in two places. USGS image by L. Gallant. 

This image was taken on a helicopter overflight on the afternoon of November 29, 2022. It shows a lava flow cutting across the Mauna Loa Observatory Road in two places. USGS image by L. Gallant. 

glowing red and orange lava flows moving down a dark slope with orange and red clouds in the sky.
Mauna Loa eruption from the Northeast Rift Zone sends lava flows to the north downslope toward Saddle Road. As of 6am local time, flows were 6 miles from Saddle Road.
Mauna Loa eruption from the Northeast Rift Zone sends lava flows to the north downslope toward Saddle Road. As of 6am local time, flows were 6 miles from Saddle Road.
Mauna Loa eruption from the Northeast Rift Zone sends lava flows to the north downslope toward Saddle Road. As of 6am local time, flows were 6 miles from Saddle Road.

Photograph taken from Saddle Road at 6AM Hawaii time on November 29, 2022 shows lava flows moving northeast downslope of Mauna Loa volcano from the Northeast Rift Zone eruption.

glowing red and orange lava flows moving down a dark slope with orange and red clouds in the sky.
Mauna Loa eruption from the Northeast Rift Zone sends lava flows to the north downslope. As of 6am local time, flows were 6 miles from Saddle Road.
Mauna Loa eruption from the Northeast Rift Zone sends lava flows to the north downslope. As of 6am local time, flows were 6 miles from Saddle Road.
Mauna Loa eruption from the Northeast Rift Zone sends lava flows to the north downslope. As of 6am local time, flows were 6 miles from Saddle Road.

Photograph taken from Saddle Road at 6AM Hawaii time on November 29, 2022 shows lava flows moving northeast downslope of Mauna Loa volcano from the Northeast Rift Zone eruption.

Color photograph of volcanic vent
Mauna Loa fissure erupting on November 29, 2022
Mauna Loa fissure erupting on November 29, 2022
Mauna Loa fissure erupting on November 29, 2022

This image shows an erupting fissure high on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone. Fountain heights of 20-25 meters (65-82 feet) were measured by HVO field crews on the morning of November 29, 2022. USGS image by L. Gallant.

This image shows an erupting fissure high on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone. Fountain heights of 20-25 meters (65-82 feet) were measured by HVO field crews on the morning of November 29, 2022. USGS image by L. Gallant.

Color photograph of eruption
Mauna Loa fissure eruption and lava flow
Mauna Loa fissure eruption and lava flow
Mauna Loa fissure eruption and lava flow

An erupting fissure high on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone was issuing multiple lava flows on the morning of November 29, 2022. Fountain heights of 20-25 meters (65-82 feet) were measured by HVO field crews. A gas plume is rising off of the fissure and partially obscuring Mauna Kea in the background of the image. USGS image by L. Gallant. 

An erupting fissure high on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone was issuing multiple lava flows on the morning of November 29, 2022. Fountain heights of 20-25 meters (65-82 feet) were measured by HVO field crews. A gas plume is rising off of the fissure and partially obscuring Mauna Kea in the background of the image. USGS image by L. Gallant. 

Color photograph of lava flow front
Mauna Loa flow front
Mauna Loa flow front
Mauna Loa flow front

This image, taken during a helicopter overflight on the afternoon of November 29, shows the advancing flow front from Mauna Loa. This flow was erupted from a vent high up on the Northeast Rift Zone and is flowing to the north. USGS image by L. Gallant. 

This image, taken during a helicopter overflight on the afternoon of November 29, shows the advancing flow front from Mauna Loa. This flow was erupted from a vent high up on the Northeast Rift Zone and is flowing to the north. USGS image by L. Gallant. 

Color photograph of volcanic plume
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Eruption Plume from Hilo
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Eruption Plume from Hilo
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Eruption Plume from Hilo

A morning view of Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone eruption plume from Hilo. Volcanic gas emissions are generating an eruption plume primarily being blown to the North this morning. USGS photo by K. Hon on November 29, 2022. 

A morning view of Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone eruption plume from Hilo. Volcanic gas emissions are generating an eruption plume primarily being blown to the North this morning. USGS photo by K. Hon on November 29, 2022. 

Color photograph of eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption

A view of fissure 4 erupting on the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, taken at approximately 8 a.m. HST November 29, 2022. Fissure 4 formed at approximately 7:30 p.m. HST November 28, and this morning the fountains there were 5-10 m (16-33 ft) tall. USGS photo by F. Trusdell. 

A view of fissure 4 erupting on the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, taken at approximately 8 a.m. HST November 29, 2022. Fissure 4 formed at approximately 7:30 p.m. HST November 28, and this morning the fountains there were 5-10 m (16-33 ft) tall. USGS photo by F. Trusdell. 

Color photograph of lava flow
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption

Aerial photograph of the dominant fissure 3 erupting on the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, taken at approximately 8 a.m. HST November 29, 2022. Fissure 3 fountains were up to 25 m (82 ft) this morning and the vent was feeding the main lava flow to the northeast.  USGS photo by M. Patrick.  

Aerial photograph of the dominant fissure 3 erupting on the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, taken at approximately 8 a.m. HST November 29, 2022. Fissure 3 fountains were up to 25 m (82 ft) this morning and the vent was feeding the main lava flow to the northeast.  USGS photo by M. Patrick.  

Color photograph of volcanic fissure erupting
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption

Photograph of fissure 3 erupting on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone the morning of November 29, 2022. The longest and largest lava flow is issuing from fissure 3. This lava flow crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road at approximately 8 p.m.

Photograph of fissure 3 erupting on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone the morning of November 29, 2022. The longest and largest lava flow is issuing from fissure 3. This lava flow crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road at approximately 8 p.m.

Color photograph of lava flow
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Eruption

Aerial view of the lava flows on the northeast flank of Mauna Loa, taken during a morning overflight on November 29, 2022. These lava flows are moving in a northeast direction, being fed by fissure vents on the Northeast Rift Zone. USGS photo by M. Patrick. 

Aerial view of the lava flows on the northeast flank of Mauna Loa, taken during a morning overflight on November 29, 2022. These lava flows are moving in a northeast direction, being fed by fissure vents on the Northeast Rift Zone. USGS photo by M. Patrick. 

Color photograph of scientist in the field
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Lava Flow
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Lava Flow
November 29, 2022 — Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Zone Lava Flow

A Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologist documents a lava flow from the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa the morning of November 29, 2022. The ‘a‘ā lava flow, on the northeast flank of Mauna Loa, is several feet thick. 'A'ā flows have a rough rubbly surface composed of broken lava blocks called clinkers.

A Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologist documents a lava flow from the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa the morning of November 29, 2022. The ‘a‘ā lava flow, on the northeast flank of Mauna Loa, is several feet thick. 'A'ā flows have a rough rubbly surface composed of broken lava blocks called clinkers.

lava flowing down volcano
Aerial view of Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Aerial view of Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Aerial view of Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

lava flowing down volcano
Aerial view of Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Aerial view of Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Aerial view of Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

lava flowing down volcano
Lava flow — Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Lava flow — Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Lava flow — Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

lava flowing down volcano
Lava flow — Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Lava flow — Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa
Lava flow — Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

Aerial photos taken at 7:15 AM local time (HST) from Civil Air Patrol flight. Northeast rift zone eruption of Mauna Loa.

Lava flow on Mauna Loa
Lava flow on Mauna Loa - November 28, 2022
Lava flow on Mauna Loa - November 28, 2022
Lava flow on Mauna Loa - November 28, 2022

Aerial photo of a fissure and lava flows on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone at approximately 9:30 a.m. HST on November 28, 2022. The photo view is to the NW, with Mauna Kea on the right hand side of the image. USGS photo by K. Lynn.

Aerial photo of a fissure and lava flows on Mauna Loa's Northeast Rift Zone at approximately 9:30 a.m. HST on November 28, 2022. The photo view is to the NW, with Mauna Kea on the right hand side of the image. USGS photo by K. Lynn.