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Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

January 1, 2010

About 1.02 × 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94–137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 × 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with free-chlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction phase. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) were completely sorbed or degraded within 10 months of injection.

Publication Year 2010
Title Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer
DOI 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.04.017
Authors John A. Izbicki, Christen E. Petersen, Kenneth J. Glotzbach, Loren F. Metzger, Allen H. Christensen, Gregory A. Smith, David R. O'Leary, Miranda S. Fram, Trevor Joseph, Heather Shannon
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Applied Geochemistry
Index ID 70007514
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization California Water Science Center