Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Comparative virulence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genotypes in two koi varieties

March 17, 2022

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), is a lethal freshwater pathogen of cyprinid fish, and Cyprinus carpio koi is a primary host species. The virus was initially described in the 1960s after outbreaks occurred in Europe, but a global expansion of SVCV has been ongoing since the late 1990s. Genetic typing of SVCV isolates separates them into 4 genotypes that are correlated with geographic origin: Ia (Asia), Ib and Ic (Eastern Europe), and Id (Central Europe). We compared infectivity and virulence of 8 SVCV strains, including 4 uncharacterized Chinese Ia isolates and representatives of genotypes Ia-d in 2 morphologically distinct varieties of koi: long-fin semi-scaled Beni Kikokuryu koi and short-fin fully scaled Sanke koi. Mortality ranged from 4 to 82% in the Beni Kikokuryu koi and 0 to 94% in the Sanke koi following immersion challenge. Genotype Ia isolates of Asian origin had a wide range in virulence (0-94%). Single isolates representing the European genotypes Ib and Ic were moderately virulent (38-56%). Each virus strain produced similar levels of mortality in both koi breeds, with the exception of the SVCV Id strain that appeared to have both moderate and high virulence phenotypes (60% in Beni Kikokuryu koi vs. 87% in Sanke koi). Overall SVCV strain virulence appeared to be a dominant factor in determining disease outcomes, whereas intraspecies variation, based on koi variety, had less of an impact. This study is the first side-by-side comparison of Chinese SVCV isolates and genotype Ia-d strain virulence in a highly susceptible host.

Publication Year 2022
Title Comparative virulence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genotypes in two koi varieties
DOI 10.3354/dao03650
Authors Eveline J. Emmenegger, Emma K. Bueren, Peng Jia, Noble Hendrix, Hong Liu
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Disease of Aquatic Organisms
Index ID 70230207
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Western Fisheries Research Center