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Geochronology and eruptive history of the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska Peninsula

January 1, 2003

In the Katmai district of the Alaska Peninsula, K–Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages have been determined for a dozen andesite–dacite stratocones on the arc front and for 11 rear-arc volcanoes, 10 of which are monogenetic. Tied to mapping and stratigraphic studies, our dating emphasized proximal basal lavas that rest on basement rocks, in order to estimate ages of inception of each polygenetic cone. Oldest among arc-front cones is Alagogshak Volcano (690–43 ka), succeeded in the Holocene by the active Mount Martin cone. Mount Mageik consists of four overlapping subedifices, basal lavas of which give ages of 93, 71, and 59 ka, and Holocene. The three small prehistoric cones of Trident Volcano yield ages of 143, 101–58, and 44 ka. Falling Mountain and Mount Cerberus, dacite domes near the 1912 Novarupta vent, are related compositionally to the Trident group and give ages of 70 ka and 114 ka. Mount Katmai, which underwent caldera collapse in 1912, consists of two subedifices that overlapped in space and time, and is the only arc-front center here to include basalt and rhyolite; one cone began by 90 ka, the other by 47 ka. Snowy Mountain also consists of two contiguous cones, which started around 200 and 171 ka, respectively, the younger remaining active into the Holocene. Devils Desk, the only mafic cone on the arc front, was short-lived at about 245 ka. In the rear-arc, (1) Mount Griggs produced mafic-to-silicic andesite in several episodes between 292 ka and the Holocene; (2) the Savonoski River cluster includes a Pliocene dacite dome and five small mafic cones (390–88 ka); (3) Gertrude Creek cone (49.8% SiO2) yields an age of 500 ka; and (4) the Saddlehorn Creek cluster includes five Pliocene basalt-to-andesite remnants. Eruptive volumes were reconstructed, permitting estimates of average eruption rates for edifice lifetimes. Since the mid Pleistocene, total volume erupted along the arc front here is 210±47 km3 and in the rear-arc 39±6 km3, of which Mount Griggs alone accounts for 35±5 km3. Most productive has been Mount Katmai at 70±18 km3, yielding a rate of ∼1 km3/kyr, followed by Mount Mageik (0.33 km3/kyr) and Mount Griggs (0.3 km3/kyr since 50 ka).


Publication Year 2003
Title Geochronology and eruptive history of the Katmai volcanic cluster, Alaska Peninsula
DOI 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00321-2
Authors Wes Hildreth, Marvin A. Lanphere, Judy Fierstein
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Index ID 70025180
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse