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The indication of Martian gully formation processes by slope-area analysis

January 1, 2011

The formation process of recent gullies on Mars is currently under debate. This study aims to discriminate between the proposed formation processes - pure water flow, debris flow and dry mass wasting - through the application of geomorphological indices commonly used in terrestrial geomorphology. High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of Earth and Mars were used to evaluate the drainage characteristics of small slope sections. Data from Earth were used to validate the hillslope, debris-flow and alluvial process domains previously found for large fluvial catchments on Earth, and these domains were applied to gullied and ungullied slopes on Mars. In accordance with other studies, our results indicate that debris flow is one of the main processes forming the Martian gullies that were being examined. The source of the water is predominantly distributed surface melting, not an underground aquifer. Evidence is also presented indicating that other processes may have shaped Martian crater slopes, such as ice-assisted creep and solifluction, in agreement with the proposed recent Martian glacial and periglacial climate. Our results suggest that, within impact craters, different processes are acting on differently oriented slopes, but further work is needed to investigate the potential link between these observations and changes in Martian climate.

Publication Year 2011
Title The indication of Martian gully formation processes by slope-area analysis
DOI 10.1144/SP356.10
Authors Susan J. Conway, Matthew R. Balme, John B. Murray, Martin C. Towner, Chris Okubo, Peter M. Grindrod
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Geological Society Special Publication
Index ID 70036488
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Astrogeology Science Center