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Marine ferromanganese encrustations: Archives of changing oceans

June 8, 2017

Marine iron–manganese oxide coatings occur in many shallow and deep-water areas of the global ocean and can form in three ways: 1) Fe–Mn crusts can precipitate from seawater onto rocks on seamounts; 2) Fe–Mn nodules can form on the sediment surface around a nucleus by diagenetic processes in sediment pore water; 3) encrustations can precipitate from hydrothermal fluids. These oxide coatings have been growing for thousands to tens of millions of years. They represent a vast archive of how oceans have changed, including variations of climate, ocean currents, geological activity, erosion processes on land, and even anthropogenic impact. A growing toolbox of age-dating methods and element and isotopic signatures are being used to exploit these archives.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2017
Title Marine ferromanganese encrustations: Archives of changing oceans
DOI 10.2113/gselements.13.3.177
Authors Andrea Koschinsky, James R. Hein
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Elements
Index ID 70188420
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center