The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed data to describe mixing patterns induced by aerators and mixers to aid in the calibration and verification of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. During September 1995, three-dimensional water-velocity profiles were collected during the operation of fine-bubble and coarse-bubble aerators in a test tank at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. Three-dimensional water velocity, water-temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductivity profiles were collected during operation of a coarse-bubble aerator in a reservoir in Schaumburg, Illinois, during summer 1996 and summer 1997, during strongly stratified and weakly stratified conditions. The effects of a submersible mixer alone and in combination with coarse-bubble aerators and a surface mixer alone also were investigated during summer 1997. The mixing patterns induced by the operation of aerators, submersible mixers, and surface mixers were described and compared with mixing patterns predicted by model simulations. Bubble-plume characteristics during tests in strongly stratified and weakly stratified conditions in the reservoir were documented and compared with characteristics simulated by different models. Lemckert and Imberger?s model simulates an entrainment rate similar to the rate measured during a test in the reservoir under strongly stratified conditions, whereas Schladow?s one-dimensional model appears to underestimate the total entrainment rate by about 50 percent. Schladow?s model was accurate during weak stratification but underestimated the radius of the plume during strong stratification. For 5 days during daylight hours, water temperature profiles were collected continuously during the operation of four aerators. Water temperatures in the reservoir were significantly affected by the operation of the aeration system. These changes were compared to simulations from a one-dimensional Dynamic Lake Model (DLM) simulation. DLM accurately simulated changes as a result of aeration, including daily changes. On the basis of temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen measurements, the volumetric quantity of oxygen in the reservoir was quantified before and after operation of a submersible mixer. A net loss of oxygen was calculated. This net loss may have resulted from a net warming of water throughout the reservoir or submerged supersaturated water releasing oxygen when the water came in contact with the atmosphere.
|Title||Methodology, data collection, and data analysis for determination of water-mixing patterns induced by aerators and mixers|
|Authors||Gary P. Johnson, Nancy J. Hornewer, Dale M. Robertson, Darren T. Olson, Josh Gioja|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Water-Resources Investigations Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|