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Nearshore Tsunami Inundation Model Validation: Toward Sediment Transport Applications

January 1, 2011

Model predictions from a numerical model, Delft3D, based on the nonlinear shallow water equations are compared with analytical results and laboratory observations from seven tsunami-like benchmark experiments, and with field observations from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The model accurately predicts the magnitude and timing of the measured water levels and flow velocities, as well as the magnitude of the maximum inundation distance and run-up, for both breaking and non-breaking waves. The shock-capturing numerical scheme employed describes well the total decrease in wave height due to breaking, but does not reproduce the observed shoaling near the break point. The maximum water levels observed onshore near Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra, following the 26 December 2004 tsunami are well predicted given the uncertainty in the model setup. The good agreement between the model predictions and the analytical results and observations demonstrates that the numerical solution and wetting and drying methods employed are appropriate for modeling tsunami inundation for breaking and non-breaking long waves. Extension of the model to include sediment transport may be appropriate for long, non-breaking tsunami waves. Using available sediment transport formulations, the sediment deposit thickness at Kuala Meurisi is predicted generally within a factor of 2.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2011
Title Nearshore Tsunami Inundation Model Validation: Toward Sediment Transport Applications
DOI 10.1007/s00024-011-0291-5
Authors Alex Apotsos, Mark Buckley, Guy Gelfenbaum, Bruce Jaffe, Deepak Vatvani
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Pure and Applied Geophysics
Series Number
Index ID 70034454
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center