We report a new calibration model for manganese using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument that is part of the ChemCam instrument suite onboard the NASA Curiosity rover. The model has been trained using an expanded set of 523 manganese-bearing rock, mineral, metal ore, and synthetic standards. The optimal calibration model uses the Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) multivariate techniques, with a novel “double blending” technique. We determined the detection limit for manganese is 82 ppm using a method blank procedure and is possibly as low as 27 ppm based on visual inspection of the spectra. Based on a representative test set consisting of measurements on 93 standards, the double blended multivariate model shows a Root Mean Squared Error of Prediction (RMSEP) accuracy of 1.39 wt% MnO for the full blended model. Employing a local RMSEP estimate where the model performance is evaluated based on nearby test samples, the accuracy is 0.03 wt% at the quantification limit (0.05 wt% MnO), 0.4 wt% accuracy at 1.0 wt% MnO, and 4.4 wt% accuracy at 100 wt% MnO. Precision is estimated using the standard deviation of the test set measurements, and is ±0.01 wt% MnO at the quantification limit, ±0.09 wt% MnO at 1.0 wt% MnO, and ± 2.1 wt% MnO at 100 wt% MnO (all 1 standard deviation). This new calibration is important for understanding the variation of manganese in the bedrock with the Curiosity rover on Mars, which provides insight into past redox conditions on Mars.
|Title||Quantification of manganese for ChemCam Mars and laboratory spectra using a multivariate model|
|Authors||Patrick J. Gasda, Ryan Anderson, A. Cousin, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, A. Ollila, Nina L. Lanza, S Lamm, Roger C. Wiens, Sylvestre Maurice, Olivier Gasnault, R. Beal, A. Reyes-Newell, D. Delapp|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Spectrochimica Acta B|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Astrogeology Science Center|