Resist, accept, and direct responses to biological invasions: A social–ecological perspective
Biological invasions represent an important and unique case of ecological transformation that can strongly influence species and entire ecosystems. Challenges in managing invasions arise on multiple fronts, ranging from diverse and often divergent values associated with native and introduced species, logistical constraints, and transformation via other change agents (e.g., climate and land-use change). We address biological invasions considering the Resist-Accept-Direct (RAD) framework for addressing ecological transformation. Because RAD is focused on decisions, we address both social and ecological factors that influence preferences for decision alternatives. We address social factors first as these can constrain the range of alternatives considered in an ecological context. Next, we address ecological dynamics by modeling trajectories from RAD alternatives in a two-species scenario involving impacts of introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on native bull trout (S. confluentus). Results reveal that decision alternatives aligned with each of the major components of RAD can produce positive outcomes. In a management context, these findings highlight the value of investing in early engagement to fully identify decision alternatives, formalizing models of system dynamics to understand ecological trajectories, and applying this knowledge to set the stage for longer term efforts to address biological invasions.
|Resist, accept, and direct responses to biological invasions: A social–ecological perspective
|Jason B. Dunham, Joseph R. Benjamin, David J. Lawrence, Katherine Clifford
|Fisheries Management and Ecology
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center