Seismic monitoring to assess performance of structures in near-real time: Recent progress
Earlier papers have described how observed data from classical accelerometers deployed in structures or from differential GPS with high sampling ratios deployed at roofs of tall buildings can be configured to establish seismic health monitoring of structures. In these configurations, drift ratios are the main parametric indicator of damage condition of a structure or component of a structure. Real-time measurement of displacements are acquired either by double integration of accelerometer time-series data, or by directly using GPS. Recorded sensor data is then related to the performance level of a building. Performance-based design method stipulates that for a building the amplitude of relative displacement of the roof of a building (with respect to its base) indicates its performance. Usually, drift ratio is computed using relative displacement between two consecutive floors. When accelerometers are used, determination of displacement is possible by strategically deploying them at a select number of pairs of consecutive floors. For these determinations, software is used to compute displacements and drift ratios in real-time by double integration of accelerometer data. However, GPS-measured relative displacements are limited to being acquired only at the roof with respect to its reference base. Thus, computed drift ratio is the average drift ratio for the whole building. Until recently, the validity of measurements using GPS was limited to long-period structures (T>1 s) because GPS systems readily available were limited to 10–20 samples per seconds (sps) capability. However, presently, up to 50 sps differential GPS systems are available on the market and have been successfully used to monitor drift ratios [1, Panagitou et al. (Seismic Response of ReinForced Concrete Wall Buildings, 2006)], (Restrepo, pers. comm. 2007) – thus enabling future usefulness of GPS to all types of structures. Several levels of threshold drift ratios can be postulated in order to make decisions for inspections and/or occupancy. Experience with data acquired from both accelerometers and GPS deployments indicates that they are reliable and provide pragmatic alternatives to alert the owners and other authorized parties to make informed decisions and select choices for pre-defined actions following significant events. Furthermore, recent adoption of such methods by financial and industrial enterprises is testimony to their viability.
|Seismic monitoring to assess performance of structures in near-real time: Recent progress
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|Western Ecological Research Center