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USGS 2020 critical minerals review

May 1, 2021

Concerns about the lack of domestic production and availability of essential mineral raw materials were a recurring theme throughout the 20th century, particularly in the periods around armed conflicts (Congressional Research Service, 2019). These concerns resulted in the designation of particular minerals as “strategic” or “critical,” terms that commonly depend on the perspective of the user, but which are generally understood to relate to mineral commodities with uses in essential applications, and which are exposed to risk of supply disruptions, with attendant implications for economic and national security interests.