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Minerals

The USGS studies geologic processes that concentrate mineral resources in the Earth's crust, and assesses areas of undiscovered mineral resources. We also collect national and international information on mineral commodities.

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How can I find U.S. Bureau of Mines publications?

After 85 years of service, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) closed in 1996. Certain functions, such as the collection, analysis, and dissemination of minerals information, have been returned to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For information on former USBM programs or publications, please see the following sources:The National Technical Reports Library (part of the National Technical information...

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How can I find U.S. Bureau of Mines publications?

After 85 years of service, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) closed in 1996. Certain functions, such as the collection, analysis, and dissemination of minerals information, have been returned to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). For information on former USBM programs or publications, please see the following sources:The National Technical Reports Library (part of the National Technical information...

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What is white gold?

White gold was originally developed to imitate platinum (a naturally white metal). White gold is usually an alloy containing about 75% gold and about 25% nickel and zinc. If stamped 18 karat, it would be 75% pure gold.

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What is white gold?

White gold was originally developed to imitate platinum (a naturally white metal). White gold is usually an alloy containing about 75% gold and about 25% nickel and zinc. If stamped 18 karat, it would be 75% pure gold.

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Where can I find information about mineral commodities?

For statistical information about mineral commodities, visit USGS Commodity Statistics and Information. For locations outside the United States, USGS International Minerals Statistics and Information is the best starting point.

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Where can I find information about mineral commodities?

For statistical information about mineral commodities, visit USGS Commodity Statistics and Information. For locations outside the United States, USGS International Minerals Statistics and Information is the best starting point.

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What is the meaning of the karat mark on gold jewelry?

The fineness of jewelry gold is stated as the number of parts in twenty-four that are gold. Thus, 24 karat gold is pure gold; 12 K would be an alloy that is half gold and half copper or other metals.

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What is the meaning of the karat mark on gold jewelry?

The fineness of jewelry gold is stated as the number of parts in twenty-four that are gold. Thus, 24 karat gold is pure gold; 12 K would be an alloy that is half gold and half copper or other metals.

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What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?

A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. Common minerals include quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, olivine, and calcite.A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals, or a body of undifferentiated mineral matter. Common rocks include granite, basalt...

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What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?

A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. Common minerals include quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, olivine, and calcite.A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals, or a body of undifferentiated mineral matter. Common rocks include granite, basalt...

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How much silver has been found in the world?

Of the 1,740,000 metric tons of silver discovered to date, 55% is found in just four countries on earth. All the silver discovered thus far would fit in a cube 55 meters on a side.Learn more: USGS commodity website for silver

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How much silver has been found in the world?

Of the 1,740,000 metric tons of silver discovered to date, 55% is found in just four countries on earth. All the silver discovered thus far would fit in a cube 55 meters on a side.Learn more: USGS commodity website for silver

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What is "Fool's Gold?"

Fool's Gold can be one of three minerals. The most common mineral mistaken for gold is pyrite. Chalcopyrite may also appear gold-like, and weathered mica can mimic gold as well. Compared to actual gold, these minerals will flake, powder, or crumble when poked with a metal point, whereas gold will gouge or indent like soft lead. In addition, actual gold will leave a golden yellow streak when...

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What is "Fool's Gold?"

Fool's Gold can be one of three minerals. The most common mineral mistaken for gold is pyrite. Chalcopyrite may also appear gold-like, and weathered mica can mimic gold as well. Compared to actual gold, these minerals will flake, powder, or crumble when poked with a metal point, whereas gold will gouge or indent like soft lead. In addition, actual gold will leave a golden yellow streak when...

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What is sterling silver?

Sterling silver is the standard of quality for articles containing 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper (and/or other alloys).

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What is sterling silver?

Sterling silver is the standard of quality for articles containing 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper (and/or other alloys).

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How much gold has been found in the world?

About 244,000 metric tons of gold has been discovered to date (187,000 metric tons historically produced plus current underground reserves of 57,000 metric tons). Most of that gold has come from just three countries: China, Australia, and South Africa. The United States ranked fourth in gold production in 2016.All of the gold discovered thus far would fit in a cube that is 28 meters wide on every...

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How much gold has been found in the world?

About 244,000 metric tons of gold has been discovered to date (187,000 metric tons historically produced plus current underground reserves of 57,000 metric tons). Most of that gold has come from just three countries: China, Australia, and South Africa. The United States ranked fourth in gold production in 2016.All of the gold discovered thus far would fit in a cube that is 28 meters wide on every...

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How large is a lifetime supply of minerals for the average person?

At today's level of consumption, the average newborn infant will need a lifetime supply of:871 pounds of lead502 pounds of zinc950 pounds of copper2,692 pounds of aluminum21,645 pounds of iron ore11,614 pounds of clays30,091 pounds of salt1,420,000 pounds of stone, sand, gravel, and cementLearn more: Mineral Resources Education Products

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How large is a lifetime supply of minerals for the average person?

At today's level of consumption, the average newborn infant will need a lifetime supply of:871 pounds of lead502 pounds of zinc950 pounds of copper2,692 pounds of aluminum21,645 pounds of iron ore11,614 pounds of clays30,091 pounds of salt1,420,000 pounds of stone, sand, gravel, and cementLearn more: Mineral Resources Education Products

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How many pounds of minerals are required by the average person in a year?

To maintain our standard of living, each person in the United States requires over 40,630 pounds of minerals each year:10, 765 pounds of stone7,254 pounds of sand and gravel685 pounds of cement148 pounds of clays383 pounds of salt275 pounds of iron ore168 pounds of phosphate rock35 pounds of soda ash34 pounds of aluminum12 pounds of copper11 pounds of lead6 pounds of zinc5 pounds of manganese25...

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How many pounds of minerals are required by the average person in a year?

To maintain our standard of living, each person in the United States requires over 40,630 pounds of minerals each year:10, 765 pounds of stone7,254 pounds of sand and gravel685 pounds of cement148 pounds of clays383 pounds of salt275 pounds of iron ore168 pounds of phosphate rock35 pounds of soda ash34 pounds of aluminum12 pounds of copper11 pounds of lead6 pounds of zinc5 pounds of manganese25...

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How do we extract minerals?

The primary methods used to extract minerals from the ground are: Underground miningSurface (open pit) miningPlacer mining The location and shape of the deposit, strength of the rock, ore grade, mining costs, and current market price of the commodity are some of the determining factors for selecting which mining method to use.Higher-grade metallic ores found in veins deep under the Earth’s surface...

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How do we extract minerals?

The primary methods used to extract minerals from the ground are: Underground miningSurface (open pit) miningPlacer mining The location and shape of the deposit, strength of the rock, ore grade, mining costs, and current market price of the commodity are some of the determining factors for selecting which mining method to use.Higher-grade metallic ores found in veins deep under the Earth’s surface...

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