Through the Additional Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Act of 2019 (H.R. 2157), the USGS received Supplemental funding to support recovery and rebuilding activities in the wake of the 2018 Kīlauea volcano eruption. As part of eruption response bolstering, USGS is hardening and augmenting the HVO geodetic monitoring instrumentation and network.
HVO will restore and harden its network of real-time monitoring instruments at the summit and in critical areas along the rift zones to support early detection of magma movement and more accurate and timely characterization of hazards to Island of Hawai‘i communities and Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Instruments lost in the eruption will be replaced, other parts of the network will be modernized, and new instruments will be added. Data from a suite of instruments measuring multiple parameters are required to provide the best warnings and forecasts of eruptive activity. Seismometers, GPS/GNSS, tiltmeters, gas sensors, and gravimeters are needed to assess the state of the volcano. Thermal and visual camera systems will enable HVO to monitor surface activity at the summit and lower East Rift Zone and neighboring Mauna Loa. HVO will restore and improve its capability to detect gases coming from magma rising into the system.
Harden and augment HVO geodetic monitoring network and instrumentation to detect, assess and respond to eruptive activity.
~16 sites hardened with new Septentrio PolarX5 GNSS receivers purchased by supplement
2 sites with new choke ring GNSS antennas purchased by supplement
Established robust cache of GNSS receivers and antennas for rapid eruption-response deployments and overall network hardening as personnel resources permit.
The full, annual GPS surveying campaigns were completed for Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, and the Deformation Team effectively responded to the 2020 Kilauea eruption through remote monitoring and rapid deployments at 3-4 new semi-continuous sites using equipment purchased by the supplemental award. The CALM gravimeter was also re-installed in the Halema’uma’u crater.
HVO's Geodetic project continues to present evolving current and recent data patterns and modeled sources of deformation to observatory staff, National Park personnel, and scientific colleagues through various briefings and meetings.