Chemical data from 43,334 wells were used to examine the role of land surface-soil-aquifer connections in producing elevated manganese concentrations (>300 microgram/L) in United States (U.S.) groundwater. Elevated manganese and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were associated with shallow water tables and organic-carbon rich soils, suggesting soil-derived DOC supported manganese reduction. Manganese and DOC concentrations were higher near rivers than farther from rivers, suggesting river-derived DOC also supported manganese reduction. Anthropogenic nitrogen may also affect manganese concentrations in groundwater. In parts of the northeastern U.S. containing poorly buffered soils, ~40% of the samples with elevated manganese concentrations had pH values <6 and elevated concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate relative to samples with pH ≥6, suggesting acidic recharge produced by the oxidation of ammonium in fertilizer helped mobilize manganese. An estimated 2.6 million people potentially consume groundwater with elevated manganese concentrations, the highest densities of which occur near rivers and in areas with organic-carbon rich soil. Results from this study indicate land surface-soil-aquifer connections play an important role in producing elevated manganese concentrations in groundwater used for human consumption.