Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

MODFLOW-NWT model used in simulation of groundwater availability in reaches 3 and 4 of the Washita River aquifer, southern Oklahoma, 1980–2017

October 2, 2023

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB), constructed a finite-difference numerical groundwater-flow model of the Washita River aquifer by using MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005) with the Newton formulation solver (MODFLOW-NWT). The 1973 Oklahoma Groundwater Law requires that the OWRB conduct hydrologic investigations of the State’s aquifers to determine the maximum annual yield (MAY) for each groundwater basin. The MAY is defined as the total amount of fresh groundwater that can be annually withdrawn while allowing a minimum 20-year life of that groundwater basin. For alluvium and terrace groundwater basins, the life requirement is satisfied if, after 20 years of MAY withdrawals, 50 percent of the groundwater basin (hereinafter referred to as an “aquifer”) retains a saturated thickness of at least 5 ft. Once a MAY has been established, the amount of land owned or leased by a groundwater-use permit applicant determines the annual volume of water allocated to that groundwater-use permit applicant. The annual volume of groundwater allocated per acre of land is known as the equal-proportionate-share (EPS) pumping rate. The OWRB issued a final order on November 13, 1990, that established the MAY (81,840 and 46,935 acre-feet per year [acre-ft/yr]) and EPS pumping rate (1.5 and 1.0 acre-foot per acre per year) for reaches 3 and 4, respectively, of the Washita River aquifer in southern Oklahoma. Because more than 20 years have elapsed since the final order was issued, the USGS, in cooperation with the OWRB, conducted an updated hydrologic investigation and evaluated the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals on groundwater flow and availability in the Washita River aquifer in southern Oklahoma. Reach 3 extends from near Anadarko, Okla., to Alex, Okla., and reach 4 extends from near Alex to south of Davis, Okla. Twenty-four simulations are included in this data release: a simulation for the calibrated numerical groundwater-flow model, 18 scenario simulations to evaluate the EPS pumping rate, 4 scenario simulations to evaluate groundwater storage over a 50-year period, and 1 scenario simulation to evaluate effects of a hypothetical drought. This USGS data release contains all of the input and output files for the simulations described in the associated model documentation report (

Publication Year 2023
Title MODFLOW-NWT model used in simulation of groundwater availability in reaches 3 and 4 of the Washita River aquifer, southern Oklahoma, 1980–2017
DOI 10.5066/P9UET694
Authors Ian M Rogers, S. Jerrod Smith, Nicole C Gammill, Natalie J Gillard, Kayla A Lockmiller, Evin J Fetkovich, Jessica S. Correll, Sean P. Hussey
Product Type Data Release
Record Source USGS Digital Object Identifier Catalog
USGS Organization Oklahoma-Texas Water Science Center – Austin, TX Office