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Post-expedition report for USGS T-3 Ice Island heat flow measurements in the High Arctic Ocean, 1963-1973

July 12, 2019

In February 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study of heat flow in the Arctic Ocean Basin and acquired data at 356 sites in Canada Basin and Nautilus Basin and on Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge by the end of the project in 1973. The USGS heat flow and associated piston coring operations were conducted from a scientific station on the freely drifting T-3 Ice island (also known as Fletcher's Ice Island). The Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) had established T-3 as a drifting research station in 1962 and, along with the Office of Naval Research, kept it operating continuously until September 28, 1974. The USGS heat flow studies were part of the scientific effort supported by the NARL.