To determine the differences in soil microbial community composition between native and non-native lineages of Phragmites, we sampled soils from eight sites in the Great Lakes basin where populations of native and non-native Phragmites co-occurred. In addition, we included samples of soils from 27 populations of Phragmites across the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coasts of the US. Samples were collected between July 2015 and September 2017. At each site in the Great Lakes, we sampled rhizosphere and bulk soil surrounding one ramet of each lineage. Samples from Atlantic and Gulf coasts were collected by homogenizing rhizosphere soils from multiple ramets of one population within a single lineage. DNA was extracted from soils and fungal, bacterial, and oomycete DNA was amplified to identify the microbial constituents. Amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. This dataset includes outputs of bioinformatic analysis of sequences including operational taxonomic unit (OTU) generation, OTU abundance, resolved taxonomy, and environmental metadata collected in our survey. Raw sequences were uploaded to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under SRA accession number PRJNA601975.