What are metamorphic rocks?
Metamorphic rocks started out as some other type of rock, but have been substantially changed from their original igneous, sedimentary, or earlier metamorphic form. Metamorphic rocks form when rocks are subjected to high heat, high pressure, hot mineral-rich fluids or, more commonly, some combination of these factors. Conditions like these are found deep within the Earth or where tectonic plates meet.
Process of Metamorphism:
The process of metamorphism does not melt the rocks, but instead transforms them into denser, more compact rocks. New minerals are created either by rearrangement of mineral components or by reactions with fluids that enter the rocks. Pressure or temperature can even change previously metamorphosed rocks into new types. Metamorphic rocks are often squished, smeared out, and folded. Despite these uncomfortable conditions, metamorphic rocks do not get hot enough to melt, or they would become igneous rocks!
Common Metamorphic Rocks:
Common metamorphic rocks include schist, marble, and gneiss.
Foliated Metamorphic Rocks:
Some kinds of metamorphic rocks -- granite gneiss and biotite schist are two examples -- are strongly banded or foliated. (Foliated means the parallel arrangement of certain mineral grains that gives the rock a striped appearance.) Foliation forms when pressure squeezes the flat or elongate minerals within a rock so they become aligned. These rocks develop a platy or sheet-like structure that reflects the direction that pressure was applied.
Non-Foliated Metamorphic Rocks:
Non-foliated metamorphic rocks do not have a platy or sheet-like structure. There are several ways that non-foliated rocks can be produced. Some rocks, such as limestone are made of minerals that are not flat or elongate. No matter how much pressure you apply, the grains will not align! Another type of metamorphism, contact metamorphism, occurs when hot igneous rock intrudes into some pre-existing rock. The pre-existing rock is essentially baked by the heat, changing the mineral structure of the rock without addition of pressure.
For the first time, geologists have extracted intact rock samples from 2 miles beneath the surface of the San Andreas Fault, the infamous rupture that runs 800 miles along the length of California.
Hornfels rocks are metamorphic rocks. They usually start out as sedimentary rocks like sandstone or shale, but then volcanic material pushes up from below and bakes the sedimentary rock into a metamorphic one. Hornfels are known for being exceptionally tough and durable. This one is from Chantilly, VA.
USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at puzzling sedimentary structures in metasedimentary rocks of the Apple Creek Formation, near the Jackass prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho.
Intensely fractured Proterozoic metamorphic basement rock exposed in Poncha Canyon. Systematic structural measurements of fractures in such old rocks indicate a protracted history of brittle deformation in the core of Poncha mountain block that continued into recent rift-related extensional faulting.
Outcrop of biotitic meta-sandstone in the lower part of the Gunsight Formation, cut by white quartz veins with alteration envelopes of coarsely crystalline black biotite and minor muscovite. USGS intern, Shane Kostka prepares to collect representative samples from this outcrop.