Why are the fill values and scaling factors of Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 products different from those products in Collection 1?

The fill values and scale factors of Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 products were updated to be consistent with that of Landsat Collection 2 Level-1 data, while using the unsigned integer data type more efficiently. 

As shown in the table below, the fill value of the Surface Reflectance and Surface Temperature bands were changed from “-9999” in Collection 1, to “0” in Collection 2 to be consistent with the Level-1 data (digital numbers).  

The updated multiplicative scale factors, along with the additive scale factors, provide a full range of physical values based on the valid range allowed by data type. 

Fill values and scale factors for Landsat Collection 1 and Collection 2 Level-2 products
  Surface Reflectance Surface TemperatureS
  Collection 1 Collection 2 Collection 1 Collection 2
Fill Value -9999 0 -9999 0
Scaling Factor 0.0001 0.0000275 + -0.2 0.1 0.00341802 +149.0
Data Type Signed 16-bit integer Unsigned 16-bit integer Signed 16-bit integer Unsigned 16-bit integer

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What updates are being made in Landsat Collection 2?

Landsat Collection 2 marks the second major reprocessing event of the USGS Landsat archive. Continuing the tiered collection management structure implemented in Landsat Collection 1 , Landsat Collection 2 introduces several advancements in data processing, algorithm development, as well as data access and distribution capabilities, including:...

What is the naming convention for Landsat Collection 2 Level-1 and Level-2 scenes?

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Will Landsat Collection 1 data products remain available?

Landsat Collection 1 products will remain available for search and download through December 31, 2022. Landsat Collection 1 processing of Level-1, Level-2 Surface Reflectance and Surface Temperature; U.S. Landsat ARD; and Level-3 Burned Area, Dynamic Surface Water Extent, and Fractional Snow Cover Area products will continue through December 31,...

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Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 Surface Reflectance and Surface Temperature products are scene-based, are produced within the standard processing system, and are made available to download directly from EarthExplorer (earthexplorer.usgs.gov). In comparison, Landsat Collection 1 Level-2 products are only available via on-demand processing (Surface...

How long does it take to create Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 products after a Landsat scene is acquired?

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How do I search and download Landsat Collection 2 data products?

Search Landsat Collection 2 Level-1 and Level-2 products using EarthExplorer (earthexplorer.usgs.gov), which is the primary portal used to search all data held in the USGS EROS archives . While Landsat Collection 2 products are processed and stored in the USGS Cloud Hosting Solution (CHS) environment, downloads are managed through EarthExplorer...

What are Landsat Collection 2 Full Resolution Browse Images?

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Date published: December 1, 2020

EROS Releases Collection 2, Boosting Cloud Access, Accuracy, Value of Landsat Archive

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is pleased to announce the December release of Landsat Collection 2, the most significant upgrade to the Landsat archive to date.

Date published: December 1, 2020

EROS Releases Collection 2, Boosting Cloud Access, Accuracy, Value of Landsat Archive

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Date published: March 17, 2020

Landsat Data Moving to Public Cloud in Early 2020

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Filter Total Items: 7
Landsat Collection 2 product examples
September 16, 2020

Landsat Collection 2 product examples

Left: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-1 top of atmosphere reflectance image, center: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-2 atmospherically corrected surface reflectance image, and right: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-2 surface temperature image for an area over Dowagiac, Michigan (path 22 row 31) acquired on September 16, 2020.

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Attribution: Land Resources
December 31, 2017

Landsat Collections

Landsat Collections: Providing a Stable Environmental Record for Time Series Analysis

This video introduces the new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat Collection 1 inventory structure. Collection 1 required the reprocessing of all archived Landsat data to achieve radiometric and geometric consistency of Level-1 products through time and across all Landsat sensors

Example of the Landsat 8 Collection 2 products
May 3, 2013

Example of the Landsat 8 Collection 2 products

Left: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-1 top of atmosphere reflectance image, center: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-2 atmospherically corrected surface reflectance image, and right: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-2 surface temperature image for an area over the Sapta Koshi River in Bairawa, Nepal (path 140 row 41) acquired on May 3, 2013.

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Example of the Landsat Collection 2 products
May 3, 2013

Example of the Landsat Collection 2 products

Example of the Landsat Collection 2 Level-1 and Level-2 sample products from path 140 row 41, acquired on May 3, 2013. Left: Level-1 Top of Atmosphere. Middle: Level-2 Surface Reflectance. Right: Level-2 Surface Temperature.

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Attribution: Land Resources
Example of Landsat Collection 2 Surface Temperature
October 6, 2010

Example of Landsat Collection 2 Surface Temperature

Example of Landsat Collection 2 Surface Temperature over the Tacoma, Washington area. Landsat 5 image aquired on October 6, 2010.

Example of Landsat Collection 2
October 6, 2010

Example of the Landsat Collection 2 Surface Reflectance product

Example of the Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 Surface Reflectance science product over Seattle, Washington. Landsat 5 image acquired Oct 6, 2010 (bands 4,3,2)

Read more about Landsat Collection 2 in the Special Issue of the Landsat Update or

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Attribution: Land Resources
Example of Landsat Collection 2 Surface Reflectance
October 6, 2010

Example of Landsat Collection 2 Surface Reflectance

Left: Landsat 5 Collection 2 Top of Atmosphere reflectance image (bands 4,3,2) and Right: Landsat 5 Collection 2 atmospherically corrected surface reflectance image for an area over Bremerton, Washington, path 47 row 27 acquired on October 6, 2010.

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