1940s Monitoring Well in Franklin, Virginia
Under natural conditions, water levels in wells completed in many confined aquifers rise above the land surface, resulting in artesian flow. The well shown in the photograph was drilled near Franklin, Virginia, in 1941 to a depth of about 600 feet in confined aquifers. The initial water level in the well was about 7 feet above land surface. The above-ground structure shown in the photograph (Cederstrom, 1945) was built in the 1940’s as a creative solution to measure the water level in this well. Measurements at the well were discontinued in 1960. Today, measurements at other nearby wells indicate that water levels are now 150 to more than 200 feet below land surface.
Photo credit: Cederstrom, 1945