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The Groundwater and Streamflow Information Program (GWSIP) objectives are to collect, manage, and disseminate consistently high-quality and reliable hydrologic information in real-time and over the long-term, which are both critical for managing our Nation’s water resources and anticipating and responding to water hazards that can result in loss of life and property.

Program Overview 

The Groundwater and Streamflow Information Program (GWSIP) collects, manages, and disseminates high-quality and reliable water information in real-time and over the long-term. The information is critical for managing the Nation’s water resources and anticipating and responding to water hazards that can result in loss of life and property. Serving as one of the largest water data holders in the world, the USGS partners with more than 1,600 Federal, regional, State, tribal, and local agencies to maintain and manage its water monitoring networks. Furthermore, the GWSIP is increasingly monitoring both water-quality and quantity at a single location providing continuous real-time water data used for decisions such as emergency response, flood forecasting, reservoir management, water-use restrictions, drinking water deliveries, permit compliance, water-quality studies, and recreational safety. The long-term data supplied by the program are a critical component to sustaining the viability of industries such as agriculture, fishing, and outdoor recreation and are used for decisions related to water-supply planning, aquifer storage and recovery, infrastructure design, floodplain and ecosystem management, energy development, and resolution of water disputes. 

Program Components 

Program Budget Information 

USGS Annual Federal Appropriations Budget provides documents such as Budget Justifications (Greenbook), press releases, funding tables, fact sheets, and more, organized by Fiscal Year (FY) along with a justification of program changes. The budget provides additional Cooperative Matching Funds (CMF) to partner with local, State, regional, and tribal agencies to monitor and assess water resources. 

Budget Process Overview

Each year, federal agencies formulate a budget for the following fiscal year based on guidance and input from the Executive Office of the President (which includes the Office of Management and Budget), and, for USGS, the Department of the Interior. Congressional budget justifications (for the USGS, this is known as the “Greenbook”) are submitted to Congress as the President’s Budget Request by law on the first Monday in February prior to the new fiscal year starting October 1. Following release of that Budget Request, agencies work to justify their budget and answer questions from Congress. Over the next 8 months, each chamber of Congress provides their proposed budgets, referred to as the House and Senate “Marks”. Based on these Marks, Congress works to negotiate a final bill that, once passed, goes to the President’s desk for signature. Once signed, the bill becomes law. The agencies are then required to produce an operating plan to justifies the funding appropriated by Congress. 

During the budget process, the USGS interacts with the Appropriations committees in each chamber. Specifically, the USGS falls under the jurisdiction of the Appropriations Subcommittee for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. For more information on these subcommittees, please visit the following websites: 

In addition to the Appropriations committees, the USGS receives questions from various Congressional stakeholders. These stakeholders, referred to as authorizing committees, have specific oversight responsibilities that include authorizing agency activities and providing guidance regarding appropriate levels of funding levels to carry out the authorized activities. The USGS resides in the House Committee on Natural Resources and the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. However, the Water Resources Mission Area reports to a separate subcommittee than the rest of the USGS. For more information on these committees, please visit the following websites: 

A summary of the authorizations that are relevant to the GWSIP can be found at the Authorizations page of this site.