Satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB) based upon an empirical band ratio method is a cost-effective means for mapping nearshore bathymetry in coastal areas vulnerable to natural hazards. This is particularly important for the low-lying coastal community of Unalakleet, Alaska, that has been negatively affected not only by flooding, storm surge, and historically strong storms but also by high erosion rates stemming from the Unalakleet River and Norton Sound. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of different satellite imagery, including Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager, Sentinel–2B, WorldView–3, and L8 Provisional Aquatic Reflectance science product, for deriving SDB for Unalakleet, Alaska. Correlations were performed between satellite imagery band ratios and topobathymetric (topobathy) light detection and ranging (lidar) and in situ single-beam sound navigation and ranging (sonar). The satellite imagery correlations with topobathy lidar did not yield as high of a linear relation with water depths as the satellite imagery correlations with the single-beam sonar. An extinction depth, where light no longer attenuates through the water column, was not identified because of the shallow depths within the topobathy lidar and single-beam sonar datasets. Although some single-beam soundings measured at 7 meters deep, the correlations with the SDB band ratios did not yield a strong linear relation. Satellite imagery band ratio correlations with Electronic Navigational Chart soundings did not yield a strong linear relation because of older source data. Less than optimal linear regressions were most likely due to the geography of Unalakleet, Alaska, a low-lying coastal community subject to high erosion rates from surrounding waters. This study is one of the first attempts to compare different satellite imagery band ratio correlations with topobathy lidar and in situ sonar to assess the viability for nearshore SDB for coastal Unalakleet, Alaska.
|Title||A comparison of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Provisional Aquatic Reflectance science product, Sentinel–2B, and WorldView–3 imagery for empirical satellite-derived bathymetry, Unalakleet, Alaska|
|Authors||Sandra K. Poppenga, Jeffrey J. Danielson|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Scientific Investigations Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center|