Although much taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Ammodytes, six species are currently recognized: personatus, hexapterus, americanus, dubius, tobianus, and marinus. Sand lance are both euryhaline and eurythermal, as well as tolerant of reduced oxygen concentrations. The absence of a swim bladder allows this narrow, elongate fish to spend much time buried dormant in intertidal and shallow subtidal substrates, venturing out only to feed or spawn. All Ammodytes species appear to be relatively dormant in the winter and one (A. personatus) also estivates during summer. Copepods are their primary food source, allowing for rapid energy accumulation during secondary production blooms. Life spans range from 3 to 12 years within the genus. Spawning usually occurs in fall or winter (although some species spawn in spring) with the production of demersal, slightly adhesive eggs. Early development is oxygen and temperature dependent. Larval sand lance hatch before spring plankton blooms and have several mechanisms to resist starvation. Density-dependent conditions are common for both adults and juveniles. Sand lance are host to a wide variety of parasites, although prevalence is unclear. Because of their abundance, schooling behavior, energetic content, and size, sand lance are an important forage species throughout their range for a wide variety of marine predators.
|Title||Biology of the genus Ammodytes, the sand lances|
|Authors||Martin D. Robards, John F. Piatt|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Publication Subtype||Book Chapter|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Alaska Science Center|