Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Controls on nitrogen flux in alpine/subalpine watersheds of Colorado

January 1, 2000

High‐altitude watersheds in the Front Range of Colorado show symptoms of advanced stages of nitrogen excess, despite having less nitrogen in atmospheric deposition than other regions where watersheds retain nitrogen. In two alpine/subalpine subbasins of the Loch Vale watershed, atmospheric deposition of NO3 plus NH4+ was 3.2–5.5 kg N ha−1, and watershed export was 1.8–3.9 kg N ha−1 for water years 1992–1997. Annual N export increased in years with greater input of N, but most of the additional N was retained in the watershed, indicating that parts of the ecosystem are nitrogen‐limited. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were greatest in subsurface water of talus landscapes, where mineralization and nitrification augment high rates of atmospheric deposition of N. Tundra landscapes had moderately high DIN concentrations, whereas forest and wetland landscapes had low concentrations, indicating little export of nitrogen from these landscapes. Between the two subbasins the catchment of Icy Brook had greater retention of nitrogen than that of Andrews Creek because of landscape and hydrologic characteristics that favor greater N assimilation in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results suggest that export of N from alpine/subalpine watersheds is caused by a combination of direct flushing of N from atmospheric deposition and release of N from ecosystem biogeochemical processes (N cycling). Sensitivity of alpine ecosystems in the western United States to atmospheric deposition of N is a function of landscape heterogeneity, hydrologic flow paths, and climatic extremes that limit primary productivity and microbial activity, which, in turn, control retention and release of nitrogen. Conceptual and mechanistic models of N excess that have been developed for forested ecosystems need to be modified in order to predict the response of alpine ecosystems to future changes in climate and atmospheric deposition of N.

Publication Year 2000
Title Controls on nitrogen flux in alpine/subalpine watersheds of Colorado
DOI 10.1029/1999WR900283
Authors Donald H. Campbell, Jill Baron, Kathy A. Tonnessen, Paul D. Brooks, Paul F. Schuster
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Water Resources Research
Index ID 1015345
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Fort Collins Science Center