The domestic cat is a focal mammalian species that is used as a model for developing assisted reproductive technologies for preserving endangered cats and for studying human diseases. The generation of stable characterized cat embryonic stem cells (ESC) lines to use as donor nuclei may help to improve the efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer for preserving endangered cats and allow the creation of knockout cell lines to generate knockout cats for studying function of specific genes related to human diseases. It will also enable the possibility of producing gametes in vitro from ESC of endangered cats. In the present study, we report the generation of cat embryonic stem-like (cESL) cells from blastocysts derived entirely in vitro. We generated 32 cESL cell lines from 331 in vitro derived blastocysts from which inner cell masses were isolated by immunosurgery or by a mechanical method. Inhibition of cat dermal fibroblast (CDF) proliferation after exposure to mitomycin-C was both dose and time dependent, where doses of 30 to 40 microg/mL for 5 h were most efficient. These dosages were higher than that required to inhibit cell proliferation of mouse fetal fibroblasts (MFF; 10 microg/mL for 2.5 h). Mitomycin-C did not significantly increase necrosis of cells from either species, and had an anti-proliferative effect at concentrations below cytotoxicity. A clear species-specific relationship between feeder layers and derivation of cESL cell lines was observed, where higher numbers of cESL cell lines were generated on homologous cat feeder layers (n = 26) than from those derived on heterologous mouse feeder layers (n = 6). Three cESL cell lines generated from immunosurgery and cultured on CDF maintained self-renewal and were morphologically undifferentiated for nine and twelve passages (69-102 days). These lines showed a tightly packed dome shaped morphology, exhibited alkaline phosphatase activity and immuno-expression of the pluripotent marker OCT-4 and surface marker SSEA-1. Primary colonies at P0 to P3 and cat blastocysts expressed transcription factors OCT-4, NANOG and SOX-2 and the proto-oncogene C-MYC. However, expression was at levels significantly lower than in vitro produced blastocysts. During culture, cESL colonies spontaneously differentiated into fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and embryoid bodies. Development of techniques to prevent differentiation of cESL cells will be essential for maintaining defined cell lines
|Title||Derivation of cat embryonic stem-like cells from in vitro-produced blastocysts on homologous and heterologous feeder cells|
|Authors||M.C. Gomez, M.A. Serrano, C. Earle Pope, Jill A. Jenkins, M.N. Biancardi, M. Lopez, C. Dumas, J. Galiguis, B.L. Dresser|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||National Wetlands Research Center; Wetland and Aquatic Research Center|
Jill Jenkins, Ph.D.
Jill Jenkins, Ph.D.