Plants naturally carry microbes on seeds and within seeds that may facilitate development and early survival of seedlings. Some crops have lost seed-vectored microbes in the process of domestication or during seed storage and seed treatment. Biostimulant microbes from wild plants were used by pre-modern cultures to re-acquire beneficial seed microbes. Today some companies have developed or are developing the use of microbes obtained from soils or plant sources to stimulate plant development and growth. Many of these biostimulant microbes are endophytic in plants. Biostimulant products also include humic substances, which appear to function as signal molecules in plants, triggering increased internalization of soil microbes into root cells and tissues. In addition, protein coatings on seeds fuel the growth of seed surface-vectored microbes, increasing microbial activity around and within roots. In this article, we provide evidence of the endophytic nature of many biostimulant microbes, and suggest that many of the beneficial effects of microbial biostimulants stem from their action as endophytes or as participants or stimulants of rhizophagy cycle activity.
|Title||Endophytic bacteria in grass crop growth promotion and biostimulation|
|Authors||James F. White, Xiaoqian Chang, Kathryn L. Kingsley, Qiuwei Zhang, Peerapol Chiaranunt, April Micci, Fernando Velazquez, Matthew T. Elmore, Sharron Crane, Shanjia Li, Jiaxin Lu, Maria Molina Cobos, Natalia Gonzalez-Benitez, Miguel J Beltran-Garcia, Kurt P. Kowalski|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Grass Research|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Great Lakes Science Center|