The grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, is an invasive species in North America that has been recorded in 45 states with breeding populations in several major river basins. Established populations of grass carp have had cascading, negative effects on aquatic ecosystem structure and function. Oral piscicide baits have been examined as a potential method to manage invasive grass carp. Our goal was to examine the oral toxicity of the dimethyl-dithiocarbamate fungicide, Ziram, to grass carp. Three toxicity experiments used different carriers to deliver single Ziram doses ranging from 0.25 to 250 mg/kg by gavage. No acute mortality was observed when grass carp were gavaged with Ziram at the highest concentrations dissolved in ethanol at 40 mg/kg, suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 250 mg/kg, or suspended in polyethylene glycol (PEG) at 150 mg/kg. Ziram exposure through intraperitoneal injection resulted in acute mortality at 150 mg/kg potentially due to increased residence time in the peritoneal cavity and thereby greater opportunity for absorption. These results indicate that Ziram is acutely toxic to grass carp, however, additional research is required to formulate a successful novel grass carp toxicant that can be used to target the invasive species while minimizing effects on non-target fish species.
|Title||Evaluation of Ziram as an oral toxic bait chemical for control of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idell|
|Authors||Nile E. Kemble, Keith Grabner, David W. Whites, David Walters, Michael J. Hooper, Jeffery A. Steevens|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Management of Biological Invasions|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Columbia Environmental Research Center; Fort Collins Science Center|