Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts and nodules are marine sed- imentary mineral deposits, composed mostly of iron and manganese oxides. They precipitate very slowly from seawa- ter, or for nodules also from deep-sea sediment pore waters, recording the chemical signature of these source waters as they grow. Additional elements incorporate via sorption pro- cesses onto the Fe-Mn oxides, including rare and valuable metals that can reach concentrations that are economically valuable.
|Title||Ferromanganese crusts and nodules, rocks that grow|
|Authors||Kira Mizell, James R. Hein|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Publication Subtype||Book Chapter|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center|