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Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by low levels of iodine

January 1, 1991

The fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was rapidly inactivated by extremely low concentrations of iodine in water. A 99.9% virus reduction was obtained in 7.5 s when virus (105PFU/ml) and iodine (0.1 mg/liter, final concentration) were combined in distilled-deionized or hatchery water. Iodine efficacy decreased at pHs greater than 7.5 or when proteinaceous material was added to the water. Bovine serum albumin blocked iodine inactivation of the virus more effectively than did equal concentrations of fetal bovine serum or river sediment. Sodium thiosulfate effectively neutralized free iodine. Powder, iodophor, and crystalline iodine solutions inactivated IHNV equally. Iodine rapidly inactivated IHNV isolates representing each of the five electropherotypes. Under the conditions used in this study, inactivation was not affected by temperature, salinity, or water hardness. When Dworshak National Fish Hatchery water was continuously treated to provide a free iodine concentration of 0.14 mg/liter, a 7.5-s exposure to iodine was sufficient to inactivate 99.9% of the IHNV. Iodine added to water that contained IHNV prevented infection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. These results suggest that the waterborne route of IHNV transmission can be blocked by adding low iodine concentrations to the water supplies of hatcheries.

Citation Information

Publication Year 1991
Title Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by low levels of iodine
DOI 10.1128/aem.57.5.1379-1385.1991
Authors William N. Batts, Marsha L. Landolt, James R. Winton
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Index ID 70180702
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Western Fisheries Research Center