Toxicity of fire retardant chemicals to aquatic organisms: Progress report
Fire retardants and suppressants used extensively in North America are often applied in environmentally sensitive areas that may contain endangered, threatened, or economically important plant and animal species. We conducted laboratory acute toxicity tests in both hard and soft waters with five commonly used fire control chemicals (Fire Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75-F, Phos-Chek WD-881, and Silv-Ex). Organisms used in the tests included two fish (rainbow trout and fathead minnow), two aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Hyalella azteca), and a green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). In general, the green algae was substantially more sensitive to the three non-foam fire chemicals than the animals, the Daphnia were the most sensitive test organism in exposures with foams. The two foams (Silv-Ex and Phos-Chek WD-881) had similar toxicity and were more toxic than the three non-foams. Water quality did not seem to modify the toxicity of the five fire chemicals in a consistent manner.
|Toxicity of fire retardant chemicals to aquatic organisms: Progress report
|Steven J. Hamilton, Susan F. McDonald, Mark P. Gaikowski, Kevin J. Buhl
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|Columbia Environmental Research Center