Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Vectors, hosts, and control measures for Zika virus in the Americas

December 1, 2017

We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV. In the Americas, a zoonotic cycle has not yet been definitively established. Understanding behaviors and habitat tolerances of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two ZIKV competent vectors in the Americas, will allow more accurate modeling of disease spread and facilitate targeted and effective control efforts. Vector control efforts may have direct and indirect impacts to wildlife, particularly invertebrate feeding species; however, strategies could be implemented to limit detrimental ecological effects.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2017
Title Vectors, hosts, and control measures for Zika virus in the Americas
DOI 10.1007/s10393-017-1277-2
Authors Sarah J. Thompson, John M. Pearce, Andrew M. Ramey
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title EcoHealth
Index ID 70196267
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Alaska Science Center Biology WTEB

Related Content