Martha A Scholl

Biography

Current Projects:

Water availability in forested mountain watersheds: Mountain forests can provide a steady, sustainable supply of high-quality water. We seek to improve understanding of recharge processes and land surface/atmospheric interactions that affect this resource. Stable isotope tracers and precipitation event characteristics are used to determine climate patterns that control groundwater recharge and streamflow.

Ecohydrology of cloud forests and coastal fog systems: Cloud water and fog inputs sustain important coastal and mountain ecosystems on six continents.  Our research aims to quantify this unmeasured precipitation source in the water balance, including contributions to soil moisture, transpiration suppression, recharge and streamflow. 

Short Biography:

U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 1995-present

U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 1989-1995

University of Virginia, M.S. Environmental Sciences (Hydrology),  1989

University of Minnesota, Duluth, B.S. Geology, 1985

 

Publications:

Klemm, O., Eugster, W., Scholl, M., Gonçalves, F., Katata, G., 2018, Preface to the AAQR special issue “Fog, Fog Collection and Dew”, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 18: I-II, doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.01.FOG.  http://aaqr.org/article/detail/AAQR-18-01-OA-FOG

Otte, I., Detsch, F., Gutlein, A., Scholl, M., Kiese, R., Appelhans, T., and Nauss, T., 2017, Seasonality of stable isotope composition of atmospheric water input at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Hydrological Processes, 31(22), 3932–3947, doi: 10.1002/hyp.11311.

Murphy, S.F., Stallard, R.F., Scholl, M.A., González, G., Torres-Sánchez, A.J., 2017, Reassessing rainfall in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Local and global ecohydrological implications. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0180987.    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180987

Bassiouni, M., Scholl, M.A., Torres-Sánchez, A.J., Murphy, S.F., 2017, A Method for Quantifying Cloud Immersion in a Tropical Mountain Forest Using Time-Lapse Photography: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 243, 100-112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.04.010 

Bassiouni, M., Scholl, M.A., Torres-Sánchez, A.J., and Murphy, S.F., 2017, Supplementary Data for Method for Quantifying Cloud Immersion in a Tropical Mountain Forest Using Time-Lapse Photography: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7HQ3X52     https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/58ffa40ae4b0e85db3a46c40

Van Beusekom, A., González, G., and Scholl, M.A., 2017, Analyzing cloud base at local and regional scales to understand tropical montane cloud forest vulnerability to climate change, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 7245-7259, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7245-2017.  supplementary data: Forest Service Research Data Archive. https://doi.org/10.2737/RDS-2017-0023.

Clark, Kathryn E., Shanley, J.B., Scholl, M.A., Perdrial, N., Perdrial, J.N., Plante, A.F. and McDowell, W.H., 2017, Tropical river suspended sediment and solute dynamics in storms during an extreme drought, Water Resources Research, 53 (5), 3695-3712, doi: 10.1002/2016WR019737.

Niu, Yi, Castro, M.C., Hall, C.M., Gingerich, S.B., Scholl, M.A., and Warrier, R.B., 2017, Noble Gas Signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii - Characterizing Groundwater Sources in Fractured Systems, Water Resources Research, 53 (5), 3599-3614, doi: 10.1002/2016WR020172. 

Evaristo, J., McDonnell, J.J., Scholl, M.A., Bruijnzeel, L.A.S., and Sun, K., 2016,  Insights into plant water uptake from xylem-water isotope measurements in two tropical catchments with contrasting moisture conditions, Hydrological Processes, 30 (18), 3210-3227, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10841. 

 Shanley, James B., Engle, Mark, Scholl, Martha A., Krabbenhoft, David P., Brunette, Robert, Olson, Mark and Conroy, Mary Elizabeth, 2015, High mercury wet deposition at a “clean air” site in Puerto Rico, Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (20),12474-12482, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02430.  

 Scholl, M.A., Shanley, J.B., Murphy, S.F., Willenbring, J.K., Occhi, M., and Gonzalez, G., 2015, Stable-isotope and solute-chemistry approaches to flow characterization in a forested tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico, Applied Geochemistry, 63, 484-497, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.03.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292715000724

 Scholl, M.A. and Murphy, S.F., 2014, Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico, Water Resources Research 50, 4305-4322, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013WR014413/pdf.

 Scholl, M.A., Torres-Sanchez, A., and Rosario-Torres, M., 2014, Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data for precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1101, 29 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20141101. https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20141101.  Data files available at: http://criticalzone.org/luquillo/data/dataset/3850/

 Qi, Haiping, Coplen, Tyler B., Tarbox, Lauren, Lorenz, Jennifer M. & Scholl, Martha, 2014, USGS48 Puerto Rico precipitation – a new isotopic reference material for δ2H and δ18O measurements of water, Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, DOI: 10.1080/10256016.2014.905555.

 Spiegel, J.K., Aemisegger, F., Scholl, M., Wienhold, F.G., Collett Jr., J.L., Lee, T., van Pinxteren, D., Mertes, S., Tilgner, A., Herrmann, H., Werner, R.A., Buchmann, N., and Eugster, W., 2012, Temporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in a hill cap cloud in central Europe, (HCCT-2010), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 11679-11694.

Spiegel, J.K., Aemisegger, F., Scholl, M., Wienhold, F.G., Collett Jr., J.L., Lee, T., van Pinxteren, D., Mertes, S., Tilgner, A., Herrmann, H., Werner, R.A., Buchmann, N., and Eugster, W., 2012, Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 9855-9863.

Scholl, M.A., Eugster, W. and Burkard, R., 2011, Understanding the role of fog in forest hydrology: Stable isotopes as tools for determining input and partitioning of cloud water in montane forests, Hydrological Processes, 25, 353-366.  http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/Publications/2011/scholl_eugster_etal...

Giambelluca, T.W., DeLay, J.K., Nullet, M.A., Scholl, M.A., and Gingerich, S.B., 2011, Canopy water balance of windward and leeward Hawaiian cloud forests on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, Hydrological Processes, 25, 438-447, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.7738/pdf.

Jaeschke, J.B., Scholl, M.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Masoner, J., Christenson, S. and Qi, H.  2011, Stable-isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008, USGS SIR 2011-5262, 22 p.  http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5262/.

Scholl, M.A., Eugster, W. and Burkard, R., 2010, Understanding the role of fog in forest hydrology: Stable isotopes as tools for determining input and partitioning of cloud water in montane forests, in Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N., and Hamilton, L.S., Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, Cambridge University Press, p. 228-241.

Giambelluca, T.W., DeLay, J.K., Nullet, M.A., Scholl, M.A., and Gingerich, S.B., 2010, Cloud water interception at wet and dry forest sites on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, in Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N., and Hamilton, L.S., Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management, Cambridge University Press.

Scholl, M.A., Shanley, J.B., Zegarra, J.P., and Coplen, T.B., 2009, The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico, Water Resources Research, 45, W12407, doi:101029/2008WR007515.

http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/Publications/2009/scholl_shanley_etal...

Scholl, M.A., Giambelluca, T.W., Gingerich, S.B., Nullet, M.A. and Loope, L.L., 2007, Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water, Water Resources Research, 43, W12411, doi:101029/2007WR006011.

http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/Publications/2007/scholl_giambelluca_...

Scholl, M.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Christenson, S.C., 2006, Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate, J. Contaminant Hydrology, 86, 239-261.

Scholl, M.A., Christenson, S.C., Cozzarelli, I.C., Ferree, D.M. and Jaeschke, J., 2005, Recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone, Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, 1998-2000, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5238, 60 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2004/5238/

Scholl, M.A., Gingerich, S.B., and Tribble, G.A., 2002, The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii, J. Hydrology, v. 264, 170-184.

Eganhouse, R.P., Cozzarelli, I.M., Scholl, M.A., and Matthews, L.L., 2001, Natural attenuation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the leachate plume of a municipal landfill: using alkylbenzenes as process probes, Ground Water, v. 39, no. 2.

Cozzarelli, I.M., Suflita, J.M., Ulrich, G.A., Harris, S.H., Scholl, M.A., Schlottmann, J.L., and Christenson, Scott, 2000, Geochemical and microbiological methods for evaluating anaerobic processes in an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate, Environmental Science & Technology, v. 34, no. 18, p. 4025-4033.

Scholl, M.A., 2000, Effects of heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and biomass on biodegradation rate calculations – results from numerical simulations, Ground Water, v. 38, no. 5, p. 702-712.

Scholl, M.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Christenson, S.C., Breit, G.N., and Schlottmann, J.L., 1999, Aquifer heterogeneity at the Norman, Oklahoma landfill and its effect on observations of biodegradation processes, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 – Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 557-567. http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/Volume3/

Christenson, S.C., Scholl, M.A., Schlottmann, J.L., and Becker, C.J., 1999, Ground-water and surface-water hydrology of the Norman landfill research site, in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C (full citation above), p. 501-507. http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/Volume3/

Cozzarelli I., Suflita, J., Ulrich, G., Harris, S., Scholl, M., Norvell, J. and Jaeschke, J., 1999, Biogeochemical processes in a contaminant plume downgradient from a landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C (full citation above), p. 521-530. http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/Volume3/

Eganhouse, R.P., Matthews, L.L., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Scholl, M.A., 1999, Evidence for natural attenuation of volatile organic compounds in the leachate plume of the Norman, Oklahoma landfill, in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C (full citation above), p. 531-540. http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/Volume3/

Schlottmann, J.L., Scholl, M.A., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1999, Identifying ground-water and evaporated surface water interactions near a landfill using deuterium, 18oxygen, and chloride, Norman, Oklahoma, in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C (full citation above), p. 509-520. http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/Volume3/

Scholl, M. A. and Christenson, Scott, 1998, Spatial variation in hydraulic conductivity determined by slug tests in the Canadian River alluvium near the Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4292, 28 p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri974292/

Ingebritsen, S.E., Scholl, M.A., and Sherrod, D.R., 1996, Reply to comment on ‘Heat flow from four new research drill holes in the Western Cascades, Oregon’, by D.D. Blackwell and G.R. Priest, Geothermics, v. 25, no. 6, p. 715-724.

Scholl, M.A., Ingebritsen, S.E., Janik, C.J., and Kauahikaua, J.P., 1996, Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii, Water Resources Research, 32 (12), 3525-3537.   http://www.agu.org/journals/wr/v032/i012/95WR02837/95WR02837.pdf

Scholl, M.A., Ingebritsen, S.E., Janik, C.J., and Kauahikaua, J.P., 1995, An isotope hydrology study of the Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4213, 44 p. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/wri/wri954213

Scholl, M.A. and Ingebritsen, S.E., 1995, Total and non-seasalt sulfate and chloride measured in bulk precipitation samples from the Kilauea Volcano area, Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4001, 32 p. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/wri/wri954001

Janik, C.J., Nathenson, M., and Scholl, M.A., 1994, Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii and vicinity, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 94-586, 166 p.

Ingebritsen, S.E. and Scholl, M.A., 1993, Annotated bibliography - Hydrogeology of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 93-551-D, 30 pp.

Scholl, M.A., Janik, C.J., Ingebritsen, S.E., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Trusdell, F.A., 1993, Preliminary results from an isotope hydrology study of the Kilauea Volcano area, Hawaii, Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, v. 17, p. 187-194.

Ingebritsen, S.E., Scholl, M.A., and Sherrod, D.R., 1993, Heat flow from four new research drill holes in the Western Cascades, Oregon, Geothermics, v. 22, no. 3, p. 151-163.

Ingebritsen, S.E. and Scholl, M.A., 1993, The hydrogeology of Kilauea Volcano, Geothermics, v. 22, no. 4, p. 255-270.

Scholl, M.A., Ingebritsen, S.E. and Essaid, H.I., 1993, Comment on 'Consequences of phase separation on the distribution of hydrothermal fluids at ASHES vent field, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge' by Christopher G. Fox, J. Geophysical Research, v. 98, no. B2, p. 1813-1815.

Scholl, M.A. and Harvey, R.W., 1992, Laboratory investigations on the role of sediment surface and groundwater chemistry in transport of bacteria through a contaminated sandy aquifer, Environmental Science & Technology, v. 26, no. 7, p. 1410-1417.

Harvey, R.W., Garabedian, S.P., Smith, R.L., Barber, L.B., Metge, D.W., and Scholl, M.A., 1991, The role of physical and chemical heterogeneity in the interpretation of small-scale tracer tests involving microorganisms, in Mallard, G.E. and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigation Report 91-4034, p. 148-151.

Scholl, M.A. and Harvey, R.W., 1991, Laboratory studies of bacterial sorption to aquifer sediments from the Cape Cod Toxic-Substances Hydrology research site, in Mallard, G.E. and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigation Report 91-4034, p. 152-154.

Scholl, M.A., Mills, A.L., Herman, J.S. and Hornberger, G.H., 1990, The influence of mineralogy and solution chemistry on the attachment of bacteria to representative aquifer materials, J. Contaminant Hydrology, v. 6, p. 321-336.

McIntyre, B.M., Scholl, M.A. and Sigmon, J.T., 1990, A quantitative description of a deciduous forest canopy using a photographic technique, Forest Sci., v. 36, no. 2, p. 381-393.