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Lead poisoning of raptors: State of the science and cross-discipline mitigation options for a global problem

Lead poisoning is an important global conservation problem for many species of wildlife, especially raptors. Despite the increasing number of individual studies and regional reviews of lead poisoning of raptors, it has been over a decade since this information has been compiled into a comprehensive global review. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge of lead poisoning of raptors, we review dev
Todd E. Katzner, Deborah J. Pain, Michael McTee, Leland Brown, Sandra Cuadros, Mark Pokras, Vince Slabe., Rick Watson, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Bryan Bedrosian, Jordan O Hampton, Chris N. Parish, James M. Pay, Keisuke Saito, John Schulz

Abundance of Long-billed Curlews on military lands in the Columbia Basin

Long-billed Curlews (Numenius americanus) are declining throughout North America, and the loss of grassland breeding habitat is one of the primary threats to the species. Intermountain West, in particular, has been identified as the most important region in North America for breeding curlews. Nevertheless, the density and abundance of Long-billed Curlews in this region is not well understood. Land
Sharon Poessel, Elise Elliott-Smith, Sean M. Murphy, Susan M Haig, Adam E. Duerr, Todd E. Katzner

Global mercury concentrations in biota: Their use as a basis for a global biomonitoring framework

An important provision of the Minamata Convention on Mercury is to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted measures and its implementation. Here, we describe for the first time currently available biotic mercury (Hg) data on a global scale to improve the understanding of global efforts to reduce the impact of Hg pollution on people and the environment. Data from the peer-reviewed lit
David C. Evers, Josh T. Ackerman, Staffan Åkerblom, Dominique Bally, Niladri Basu, Kevin Bishop, Nathalie Bodin, Hans Fredrik Veitberg Braaten, Mark Burton, Paco Bustamante, Celia Y. Chen, John Chételat, Linroy Christian, Rune Dietz, Paul Drevnick, Collin Eagles-Smith, Luis Fernandez, Neil Hammerschlag, Mireille Harmelin-Vivien, Agustin Harte, Eva Kruemmel, Jose Lailson-Brito, Gabriella Medina, Cesar Rodriguez, Iain Stenhouse, Elsie M. Sunderland, Akinori Takeuchi, Timothy Tear, Claudia Vega, Simon Wilson, Pianpian Wu

Biological soil crusts are more prevalent in warmer and drier environments within the Great Basin ecoregion: Implications for managing annual grass invasion

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) can thrive under environmental conditions that are stressful for vascular plants such as high temperatures and/or extremely low moisture availability. In these settings, and in the absence of disturbance, cover of biocrusts commonly exceeds cover of vascular plants. Arid landscapes are also typically slow to recover from disturbance and prone to altered vegetatio
Lea A. Condon, John B. Bradford, Peter S. Coates

Tracking data highlight the importance of human-induced mortality for large migratory birds at a flyway scale

Human-induced direct mortality affects huge numbers of birds each year, threatening hundreds of species worldwide. Tracking technologies can be an important tool to investigate temporal and spatial patterns of bird mortality as well as their drivers. We compiled 1704 mortality records from tracking studies across the African-Eurasian flyway for 45 species, including raptors, storks, and cranes, co
Juan Serratosa, Steffen Oppel, Andrea Santangeli, Shay Rotics, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Luis S. Cano-Alonso, Jose Luis Telleria, Ryno Kemp, Aaron Nicholas, Aigars Kalvānsj, Aitor Galarza, Aldina M. A. Franco, Alessandro Andreotti, Alexander N.G. Kirschel, Alex Ngari, Alvaro Soutullo, Ana Bermejo-Bermejo, Andre J Botha, Andrea Ferri, Angelos Evangelidis, Anna Cenerini, Anton Stamenov, Antonio Hernández-Matías, Arianna Aradis, Atanas P Grozdanov, Beneharo Rodríguez, Çağan H. Şekercioğlu, Catuxa Cerecedo-Iglesias, Christina Kassara, Christos Barboutis, Claire Bracebridge, Clara García-Ripollés, Corinne J. Kendall, Damijan Denac, Dana G. Schabo, David R Barber, Dimitar V Popov, Dobromir D Dobrev, Egidio Mallia, Elena Kmetova-Biro, Ernesto Álvarez, Evan R Buechly, Evgeny A. Bragin, Fabrizio Cordischi, Fadzai Zengeya, Flavio Monti, Francois Mougeot, Gareth Tate, Georgi Stoyanov, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Giuseppe Lucia, Gradimir Gradev, Guido Ceccolini, Guilad Friedemann, Hans-Günther Bauer, Holger Kolberg, Hristo Peshev, Inês Catry, Ingar J. Øien, Isidoro Carbonell Alanís, Ivan Literák, Ivan Pokrovsky, Ivar Ojaste, Jan E. Østnes, Javier de la Puente, Joan Real, João L. Guilherme, José C. González, José M. Fernández-García, Juan Antonio Gil, Julien Terraube, Karel Poprach, Karen Aghababyan, Katharina Klein, Keith L. Bildstein, Kerri Wolter, Kjell Janssens, Kyle D. Kittelberger, Lindy J. Thompson, Mansoor H. AlJahdhami, Manuel Galán, Marcin Tobolka, Mario Posillico, Mario Cipollone, Marion Gschweng, Māris Strazds, Mark Boorman, Mark Zvidzai, Marta Acácio, Marta Romero, Martin Wikelski, Matthias Schmidt, Maurizio Sarà, Michael J. McGrady, Mindaugas Dagys, Monique L. Mackenzie, Muna Al Taq, Msafiri P. Mgumba, Munir Z. Virani, Nicolaos I. Kassinis, Nicolò Borgianni, Nikki Thie, Nikos Tsiopelas, Nili Anglister, Nina Farwig, Nir Sapir, Oddmund Kleven, Oliver Krone, Olivier Duriez, Orr Spiegel, Osama Al Nouri, Pascual López-López, Patrik Byholm, Pauline L. Kamath, Paweł Mirski, Peter Palatitz, Pietro Serroni, Rainer Raab, Ralph Buij, Ramūnas Žydelis, Ran Nathan, Rauri C.K. Bowie, Rigas Tsiakiris, Richard Stratton Hatfield, Roi Harel, Rolf T. Kroglund, Ron Efrat, Ruben Limiñana, Salim Javed, Saša P. Marinković, Sascha Rösner, Sasha Pekarsky, Shiv R. Kapila, Simeon A. Marin, Šimon Krejčí, Sinos Giokas, Siranush Tumanyan, Sondra Turjeman, Sonja C. Krüger, Steven R. Ewing, Stoycho Stoychev, Stoyan C. Nikolov, Tareq E. Qaneer, Theresa Spatz, Thomas G. Hadjikyriakou, Thomas Mueller, Todd E. Katzner, Tomas Aarvak, Tomáš Veselovský, Torgeir Nygård, Ugo Mellone, Ülo Väli, Urmas Sellis, Vicente Urios, Vladimír Nemček, Volen Arkumarev, Wayne M. Getz, Wolfgang Fiedler, Willem Van den Bossche, Yael Lehnardt, Victoria R. Jones

Propensity score matching mitigates risk of faulty inferences in observational studies of effectiveness of restoration trials

Determining effectiveness of restoration treatments is an important requirement of adaptive management, but it can be non-trivial where only portions of large and heterogeneous landscapes of concern can be treated and sampled. Bias and non-randomness in the spatial deployment of treatment and thus sampling is nearly unavoidable in the data available for large-scale management trials, and the bioph
Chad Raymond Kluender, Matthew Germino, Christopher A Anthony

Vegetation, fuels, and fire-behavior responses to linear fuel-break treatments in and around burned sagebrush steppe: Are we breaking the grass-fire cycle?

BackgroundLinear fuel breaks are being implemented to moderate fire behavior and improve wildfire containment in semiarid landscapes such as the sagebrush steppe of North America, where extensive losses in perennial vegetation and ecosystem functioning are resulting from invasion by exotic annual grasses (EAGs) that foster large and recurrent wildfires. However, fuel-break construction can also po
Matthew Germino, Samuel J. Price, Susan J Prichard

Nontarget effects of pre-emergent herbicides and a bioherbicide on soil resources, processes, and communities

Community-type conversions, such as replacement of perennials by exotic annual grasses in semiarid desert communities, are occurring due to plant invasions that often create positive plant–soil feedbacks, which favor invaders and make restoration of native perennials difficult. Exotic annual grass control measures, such as pre-emergent herbicides, can also alter soil ecosystems directly or indirec
Brynne E. Lazarus, Matthew Germino, Marie-Anne de Graaff

Cross-scale analysis reveals interacting predictors of annual and perennial cover in Northern Great Basin rangelands

Exotic annual grass invasion is a widespread threat to the integrity of sagebrush ecosystems in Western North America. Although many predictors of annual grass prevalence and native perennial vegetation have been identified, there remains substantial uncertainty about how regional-scale and local-scale predictors interact to determine vegetation heterogeneity, and how associations between vegetati
Madelon Florence Case, Kirk W. Davies, Chad S. Boyd, Lina Aoyama, Joanna Merson, Calvin Penkauskas, Lauren M. Hallett

Establishment of terrestrial mammals on former reservoir beds following large dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA

Terrestrial wildlife species are important yet often overlooked taxa in the recovery of ecosystems following dam removal. Their presence can shape ecosystem recovery, signal restoration of ecosystem function, and influence food web dynamics and nutrient transfer. We used camera traps to examine seasonal use of two former reservoir beds and an upstream reference reach by the mammalian community fol
Rebecca McCaffery, Sara Cendejas-Zarelli, Katy R Goodwin, Patricia J. Happe, Kurt Jenkins, Kimberly A. Sager-Fradkin

Analysis adapted from text mining quantitively reveals abrupt and gradual plant-community transitions after fire in sagebrush steppe

ContextPlant communities vary both abruptly and gradually over time but differentiating between types of change can be difficult with existing classification and ordination methods. Structural topic modeling (STRUTMO), a text mining analysis, offers a flexible methodology for analyzing both types of temporal trends.ObjectivesOur objectives were to (1) identify post-fire dominant sagebrush steppe p
Cara Applestein, Christopher R. Anthony, Matthew Germino

The past, present, and a future for native charr in Japan

Charrs (Salvelinus) reach their southernmost distribution in Japan, and are uniquely adapted to the short, steep streams of this island archipelago. Southern Asian Dolly Varden (Salvelinus curilus) occur only in Hokkaido Island, whereas white-spotted charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) range to southern Honshu. Both species diverged from an ancestral lineage during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene,
K.D. Fausch, Kentaro Morita, Jun-ichi Tsuboi, Yoichiro Kanno, Shoichiro Yamamoto, Daisuke Kishi, Jason B. Dunham, Itsuro Koizumi, Koh Hasegawa, Mikio Inoue, Takuya Sato, Satoshi Kitano