Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Zirconium and Hafnium Statistics and Information

Statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of the mineral commodities zirconium and hafnium

The principal economic source of zirconium is the zirconium silicate mineral, zircon (ZrSiO4).  Zircon is the primary source of all hafnium.  Zirconium and hafnium are contained in zircon at a ratio of about 50 to 1.  Zircon is a coproduct or byproduct of the mining and processing of heavy-mineral sands for the titanium minerals, ilmenite and rutile, or tin minerals.  The major end uses of zircon are refractories, foundry sands (including investment casting), and ceramic opacification.  Zircon is also marketed as a natural gemstone, and its oxide is processed to produce the diamond simulant, cubic zirconia.  Zirconium is used in nuclear fuel cladding, chemical piping in corrosive environments, heat exchangers, and various specialty alloys.  The major end uses of hafnium are in nuclear control rods, nickel-based superalloys, nozzles for plasma arc metal cutting, and high-temperature ceramics.

Subscribe to receive an email notification when a new publication is added to this page. On the Questions tab of the subscriber preferences page, select "Zirconium/Hafnium" and any other options in which you may be interested. Please see the list services page for more information.

Annual Publications

Mineral Commodity Summaries

Minerals Yearbook

Special Publications