Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program in Upstate New York

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BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DETAILED AQUIFER MAPPING PROGRAM In 1980 the U.S. Geological Survey began a Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program in upstate New York, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), funded by the USEPA's Underground Injection Control Program. The objective of this program was to define the hydrogeology of 21 extensively used (primary) stratified-drift aqu...

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DETAILED AQUIFER MAPPING PROGRAM

In 1980 the U.S. Geological Survey began a Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program in upstate New York, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), funded by the USEPA's Underground Injection Control Program. The objective of this program was to define the hydrogeology of 21 extensively used (primary) stratified-drift aquifers in upstate New York, and to present the information as individual sets of maps at 1:24,000 scale. Each published report from this program describes the hydrogeology of a specific aquifer or segment of aquifer, and depicts selected hydrogeologic characteristics. The number of maps varies among reports, depending upon the amount of hydrogeologic data that was available for each area studied. Eleven of these primary aquifers were mapped by the USGS under the cooperative program with NYSDOH, and four were mapped by a consulting firm under contract with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, with the resulting reports published by the USGS. By 1983, 15 of these 21 primary aquifers had been mapped and the results published by the USGS, in addition to two summary atlases.

In order to continue this USGS program, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) in 1983 became the main cooperating agency, with the immediate objective being to define the hydrogeology of the remaining 6 primary aquifers. By 2002, reports covering the remaining six primary aquifers were published by the USGS.

In 1987, the focus of the Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program shifted to define the hydrogeology of eight additional significant (principal) aquifers in New York. As before, the reports resulting from this project each consisted of a set of 1:24,000-scale (or larger) maps that described the hydrogeology of a specific aquifer, and depicted well and test-hole locations, surficial geology, bedrock-surface altitude, geologic sections, altitude of the water table or potentiometric surface, saturated thickness of the aquifer, and estimated well yields. The number of maps varied among the reports, depending upon the amount of hydrogeologic data available for each study area. As of 2013, a total of 35 reports, plus 2 summary atlases, have been published (or are in review) from the Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program since its inception in 1980. In addition, seven other related reports, funded in cooperation with other agencies but displaying hydrogeologic information in 1:24,000 scale map format, were published by the USGS from 1984-2000 and effectively increase the number of aquifers mapped in upstate New York to 42. These reports form the foundation of NYSDEC's wellhead protection program in upstate New York, inasmuch as NYSDEC has proposed that mapped aquifer boundaries "...serve as the fundamental delineation of wellhead protection areas..," in New York State (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 1990).

Although all of the identified primary aquifers and many of the principal aquifers in New York State have been mapped, there still exists a need within the NYSDEC Division of Water programs to have interpreted hydrogeologic data available in map format for the many principal aquifers that serve substantial populations with both publicly- and privately-supplied groundwater. This data, in published reports, supports many regulatory activities in NYSDEC’s Division of Water including delineation of ground water contributing areas, assessing potential threats to the aquifer from both point and non-point sources, responding to contaminant spills or leaks from underground fuel storage facilities, and providing information to assess the need to permit new or expanded public water supplies. Since 1980, these aquifer map reports have provided critical hydrogeologic information for programs within NYSDEC’s Divisions of Environmental Remediation, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Permits, and NYSDEC has indicated a clear need for the continued hydrogeologic assessment of principal aquifers within upstate New York.

GIS COMPONENT

In 2006, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the USGS cooperatively funded a Brownfield and Groundwater GIS project as required by 2003 legislation that established a Brownfield Cleanup Program (NYS Assembly Bill 9120). The NYSDEC developed an implementation plan for the Brownfield and Groundwater project, and one action identified in that plan was the development of GIS datasets of aquifer maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program. For this project, the aquifer boundaries for 34 previously published aquifer reports were evaluated, adjusted to include adjacent stratified-drift deposits, georeferenced, and digitized to produce GIS datasets. In addition, the surficial geologic maps from these 34 reports were evaluated, standardized in terms of geologic unit notation, and also digitized to produce GIS datasets.

Map view of over 30 sand and gravel aquifers in upstate New York (Note: Zoom-in to purple-shaded areas for detailed 1:24,000 scale aquifer maps. Use the Map Identify tool, "i", to display links to related on-line reports.):

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CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS

The long-term objective of this program is to continue the hydrogeologic assessment and mapping of selected principal aquifers within upstate New York. The selection of new aquifers remains flexible, to respond to changing program needs within the NYSDEC Division of Water. Aquifer mapping reports produced though this program are now electronically released as Web-only products, rather than as printed paper copies. Electronic (digital) publishing makes release of completed aquifer maps more timely and at a reduced cost over conventionally printed maps. Digital release of the maps using the new interactive Terrago PDF viewer (for example, see Heisig (2012) at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5282 provides a highly versatile and usable product. Future reports will be released as a Web-only document and (or) as a limited number of CD-ROMs, and associated GIS datasets will be made available though the New York State GIS Clearinghouse.

RELEVANCE AND BENEFITS

The USGS Detailed Aquifer Mapping Program continues to advance the knowledge of the regional hydrologeology by providing State, county, and local water resource managers with a summary of the hydrogeology of selected stratified-drift (ie; principal) aquifers within New York State. The availability of detailed aquifer maps at 1:24,000 in an electronic format serves to support many groundwater resource activities within the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the New York State Health Department, as well as County and municipal governments seeking information to protect their local groundwater resources. At the Federal level, these reports are used in many U.S. Environmental Protection Agency programs that deal with groundwater contamination of valley-fill aquifers in upstate New York. Finally, the reports from this ongoing program provide valuable information on the hydrogeology of selected stratified-drift aquifers in New York State for the general public and contribute to the body of literature concerning the study of stratified-drift aquifers in the glaciated northeast.

Published Reports
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REPORTS PRODUCED BY THE DETAILED AQUFER MAPPING PROGRAM IN UPSTATE NEW YORK- 1:24,000 scale maps

    1. Miller, T.S., Brooks, T.D., Stelz, W.G., and others, 1981, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Cortland-Homer-Preble area, Cortland and Onondaga Counties, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 81-1022, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr811022



    2.Moore , R.B., LaFleur, R.G., and others, 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Sprout and Fishkill Creeks area, Dutchess County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-81, 6 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr8281



    3.Anderson, H.R., Stelz, W.G., Miller, T.S., and others, 1982, Geohydrology of the glacio-lacustrine aquifer in the Fulton area, Oswego County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-83, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr8283



    4.Brown, G.A., Moore, R.B., Mahon, K.I., and Allen, R.V., 1981, Geohydrology of valley-fill aquifer in the Schenectady area, Schenectady County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-84, 6 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr8284



    5.Miller, T.S., Belli, J.L., and Allen, R.V., 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Corning area, Steuben County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-85, 6 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr8285



    6.Miller, T.S., Randall, A.D., Belli, J.L., and Allen, R.V., 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Elmira area, Chemung County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-110, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82110



    7.Anderson, H.R., Dineen, R.J., Stelz, W.G., and Belli, J.L., 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the South Fallsburgh-Woodbourne area, Sullivan County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-112, 6 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82112



    8.Anderson, H.R., Stelz, W.G., Belli, J.L., and Allen, R.V., 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Jamestown area, Chautauqua County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-113, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82113



    9.Moore, R.B., Cadwell, D.H., Stelz, W.G., and Belli, J.L., 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Ramapo and Mahwah Rivers area, Rockland County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-114, 6 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82114



    10.Holecek , T.J., Randall, A.D., Belli, J.L., and Allen, R.V., 1982, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Endicott-Johnson City area, Broome County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-268, 5 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82268



    11.Waller, R.M., Holecek, T.J., Stelz, W.G., Belli, J.L., and Mahon, K.I., 1982, Geohydrology of the preglacial Genesee valley, Monroe County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-552, 5 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82552



    12.Reynolds, R.J., 1985, Hydrogeology of the Clifton Park area, Saratoga County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4031, 6 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri844031



    13.Terry, D.B., Pagano, T.S., Shaw, M.L., and Ingram, A.W., 1985, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Cohocton area, upper Cohocton River, Steuben County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4040, 7 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854040



    14.Pagano , T.S., Terry, D.B., and Ingram, A.W., 1986, Geohydrology of the glacial-outwash aquifer in the Baldwinsville area, Seneca River, Onondaga County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4094, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854094



    15.Pagano , T.S., Terry, D.B., Shaw, M.L., and Ingram, A.W., 1985, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Bath area, Lower Cohocton River, Steuben County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4095, 7 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854095



    16.Terry, D.B., Pagano, T.S., and Ingram, A.W., 1986, Geohydrology of the glacial-outwash aquifer in the Batavia area, Tonawanda Creek, Genesee County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4096, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854096



    17.Zarriello , P.J., 1987, Hydrogeology of the Salamanca area, Cattaraugus County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4149, 5 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854149



    18.Zarriello , P.J., and Reynolds, R.J., 1987, Hydrogeology of the Olean area, Cattaraugus County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4157, 9 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854157



    19.Reynolds, R.J., 1988, Hydrogeology of the Croton-Ossining area, Westchester County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4159, 5 pls., scale 1:12,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri874159



    20.Casey, G.D., and Reynolds, R.J., 1989, Hydrogeology of the stratified-drift aquifers in the Rome area, Oneida County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4155, 8 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri884155



    21.Casey, G.D., and Reynolds, R.J., 1989, Hydrogeology of the stratified-drift aquifers in the Utica area, Oneida County, New York--part 1 (west): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4194, 8 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri884194



    22.Casey, G.D., and Reynolds, R.J., 1989, Hydrogeology of the stratified-drift aquifers in the Utica area, Oneida and Herkimer Counties, New York--part 2 (east): U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4195, 8 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri884195



    23.Reynolds, R.J., and Garry, J.D., 1990, Hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer at Owego, Tioga County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4000, 8 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri894000



    24.Miller, T.S., Warren, C.C., and McPherson, W.S., 1990, Geohydrology of the surficial aquifer in the Hornell area, in Steuben and Allegany Counties, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4053, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri894053



    25.Miller, T.S., and Sherwood, D.A., 1993, Geohydrology and water quality of the Sand Ridge glacial-drift aquifer in Oswego County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4042, 31 p., 3 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri914042



    26.Reynolds, R.J., 1999, Hydrogeology of the Schodack-Kinderhook area, Rensselaer and Columbia Counties, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-639, 73 p., 4 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr97639



    27.Garry, J.D., 1999, Hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Port Jervis area; Orange County, New York, Pike County, Pennsylvania, and Sussex County, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-275, 4 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr98275



    28.Reynolds, R.J., 2002, Hydrogeology of the Waverly-Sayre area in Tioga and Chemung Counties, New York and Bradford County, Pennsylvania: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-284, 6 sheets, scale 1:24,000, CD-ROM. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr02284



    29.Hetcher , K.K., Miller, T.S., Garry, J.D., and Reynolds, R.J., 2003, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Norwich-Oxford- Brisben area, Chenango County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-242, 7 sheets, scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr03242



    30.Hetcher-Aguila, K.K., and Miller, T.S., 2005, Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifers between the Village of Greene, Chenango County and Chenango Valley State Park, Broome County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2005-2914, 8 plates, 1:24,000 scale, CD-ROM. https://doi.org/10.3133/sim2914



    31.Reynolds, R.J., 2007, Hydrogeologic appraisal of the valley-fill aquifer in the Port Jervis Trough, Sullivan and Ulster Counties, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2960, 5 sheets, online only https://doi.org/10.3133/sim2960



    32.Reynolds, R.J. and Calef, F.J., III, 2010, Hydrogeologic data update for the stratified-drift aquifer in the Sprout and Fishkill Creek valleys, Dutchess County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3136, 4 sheets, 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3136



    33.Heisig, P.M., 2012, Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012–5282, 21 p. https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20125282



    34.Miller, T.S., and Pitman, L.M., 2012, Hydrogeology of the stratified-drift aquifers in the Cayuta Creek and Catatonk Creek valleys in parts of Tompkins, Schuyler, Chemung, and Tioga Counties, New York : U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5127, 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20125127



    35.Heisig, P.M., 2015, Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014–5156, 23 p. https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20145156



    36.Heisig, P.M., 2015, Hydrogeology of valley-fill aquifers and adjacent areas in eastern Chemung County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015–5092, 19 p. plus appendix and 1 pl., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20155092



    Related Reports



    A. Miller, T.S., Sherwood, D.A., and Krebs, M.M., 1989, Hydrogeology and water quality of the Tug Hill glacial aquifer in northern New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4014, 60 p., 24 pls., scale 1:24,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri884014

     

    B. Reynolds, R.J., 1984, Hydrogeologic appraisal of a stratified-drift aquifer near Smyrna, Chenango County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 84-4029, 53p., 6 sheets, 1:24,000 scale. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri844029



    C. Reynolds, R.J., 1986, Hydrogeology of the Fort Drum area, Jefferson, Lewis, and St. Lawrence counties, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 85-4119, 6 sheets, 1:48,000 scale. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri854119



    D. Yager, R.M., Zarriello, P.J., and Kappel, W.M., 1985, Geohydrology of the Irondequoit Creek basin near Rochester, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 84-4259, 6 sheets, 1:48,000 scale. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri844259



    E. Miller, T.S., 1990, Sand and gravel aquifers of Schuyler County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 90-4073, 1 sheet, 1:48,000 scale. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri904073



    F. Miller, T. S., Sherwood, D. A., Jeffers, P. M., Mueller, Nancy, 1998, Hydrology, water-quality, and simulation of ground-water flow in a glacial aquifer system, Cortland County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4255, 84 p., 1:24,000 scale. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri964255



    G. Miller, T.S., 2000, Unconsolidated Aquifers in Tompkins County, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4211, 1 plate. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri004211



    Summary Reports

    Cosner, O.J., 1984, Atlas of four selected aquifers in New York: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report, Contract No. 68-01-6389, Task No. 17, 102 p.

    Waller, R.M., and Finch, A.J., 1982, Atlas of eleven selected aquifers in New York: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-553, 255 p. https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr82553



    BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REPORTS PRODUCED BY THE DETAILED AQUFER MAPPING PROGRAM IN UPSTATE NEW YORK- 1:250,000 scale maps

     



    1.Miller, T. S., 1988, Unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Finger Lakes sheet: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4122, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri874122

     

    2.Bugliosi, E. F., and Trudell, R. A., 1988, Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--lower Hudson sheet: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4274, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri874274

     

    3.Bugliosi, E. F., Trudell, R. A., and Casey, G. D., 1988, Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Hudson-Mohawk sheet: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4275, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri874275

     

    4.Bugliosi, E. F., and Trudell, R. A., 1988, Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Adirondack sheet: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4276, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri874276

     

    5.Miller, T. S., 1988, Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Niagara sheet: U.S.Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4076, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. https://doi.org/10.3133/wri884076