Whole Wildlife Toxicology Catalog

Science Center Objects

Developed in 2008, the Whole Wildlife Toxicology Catalog is a portal to wildlife toxicology-oriented websites and databases. The catalog attempts to compile and provide access to website containing information that should be of value to scientists, regulators, natural resource managers, students and other members of the public.  The catalog is updated annually.  Please contact Barnett Rattner if you wish to suggest a web site for potential inclusion in this web portal.

The USGS does not maintain or endorse the content of the linked sites.

Annotated Bibliography of Petroleum Pollution (1959-2007)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. Geological Survey
  • The bibliography contains more than 2000 English-language references on topics as diverse as analytical chemistry, chemical fate, oil spill prevention and response, mitigation and restoration, economic and social analysis, and biological effects on all forms of plant and animal life in all types of environments. Each reference contains a brief description of the methods or purpose of the publication and keywords used to facilitate searching among 13 reference categories. The 'grey' and non-technical literature is not well represented; hence the bibliography is most useful as a source of detailed technical references or specialized reviews.

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP)

  • Public Access
  • Source: Arctic Council
  • The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program web site describes anthropogenic pollutants (sources, trends, pathways, impacts) in all compartments of the Arctic environment, including flora, fauna and humans.

Avian Incident Monitoring System (AIMS)

  • Public Access
  • Source: ABC
  • The Avian Incident Monitoring System (AIMS) is a Microsoft Access® database created by American Bird Conservancy with funding from the US EPA and private donors. The database is searchable on the web and documents pesticide poisoning incidents of wild birds in the US and Canada. The database provides reliable field data on lethal and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on birds, gathered from archives of Federal and State Agencies. Information is archived on the individual animals involved, impairments observed, biochemical and residue data when available, legality of pesticide usage, associated crop information, land use, source record details, and other relevant information. The AIMS database currently contains case files on over 2500 incidents, involving more than 250 species and 115 chemicals.

Biota/Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. ACE
  • Source for biota and sediment accumulation factors. These factors express the steady-state difference between the concentration of a bioaccumulating neutral (nonpolar) organic chemical normalized on the organic carbon content of a sediment, and the concentration measured in the total extractable lipids of an organism for which that sediment represents the source of contamination in its habitat.

Birds in Agricultural Areas Database (BIAA)

  • Public Access
  • Source: ABC
  • The Birds in Agricultural Areas (BIAA) database is a cooperative program between American Bird Conservancy (ABC), George Mason University (GMU) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). With this project ABC, GMU and EPA hope to identify the extent to which bird species in North America utilize agricultural fields both geographically and seasonally as primary or incidental habitat for foraging, breeding, cover, or roosting. All major crops grown in the United States are included and geographic data includes state or province and Bird Conservation Region as defined by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). Information to populate the database was obtained from books, scientific journals, government reports, gray literature, and a major library research project. This data is combined with conservation status indicators for each species including the Endangered Species Act Listings, American Bird Conservancy’s Green List, and the NABCI species assessment values. The goal of this project is a web-based tool which can be used to understand the avian biodiversity supported by agricultural environments, to assess the risk to birds when considering the use of pesticides in agricultural areas, and to determine future research needs of birds in agricultural areas.

California Wildlife Biology, Exposure Factor, and Toxicity database (Cal/Ecotox)

  • Public Access
  • Source: CA/OEHHA
  • The California Wildlife Biology, Exposure Factor, and Toxicity Database (Cal/Ecotox) is a compilation of ecological, physiological, and toxicity data for a number of California mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish.

Canary Database

  • Public Access
  • Source: Yale
  • The Canary Database is a compilation of curated peer-reviewed research articles related to the use of animals as sentinels of human health hazards. This database contains information added by trained curators in addition to bibliographic records from MEDLINE and other well known databases. The database includes studies of wildlife, companion animals, and livestock, where either the exposure or the health effect could be considered potentially relevant to human health. 

Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates Database (CEE-TV)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. Geological Survey
  • The Contaminant Exposure and Effects—Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database was developed to conduct simple searches for ecotoxicological information, examine exposure trends, and identify significant data gaps. The CEE-TV database contains over 18,000 data records on free-ranging amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing in estuarine and coastal habitats of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, Alaska, Hawaii and the Great Lakes. Information in the database was derived from over 1800 source documents, representing 483 unique species (about 252,000 individuals), with sample collection dates spanning from 1884 to 2006. The majority of the records contain exposure data (generally contaminant concentrations) on a limited number (n = 209) of chlorinated and brominated compounds, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, economic poisons, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons, while only 9.3% of the records contain biomarker or bioindicator effects data. The database is compiled in ACCESS and served using "Cold Fusion" and is accessible in a searchable format, and documentation is provided.

Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database (DSSTox)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. EPA
  • The DSSTox website provides a public forum for publishing downloadable, standardized chemical structure files associated with toxicity data. Databases currently include: NTP Carcinogenic Potency Database Summary Tables; EPA Disinfection By-Products Database with Carcinognenicity Estimate; US EPA Fathead Minnow Aquatic Toxicity Database; FDA Center for Drug Evaluation & Research - Maximum (Recommended) Daily Dose Database: Maximum (recommended) daily dose (MRDD) values for 1217 pharmaceuticals; EPA High Production Volume Challenge Program Structure-Index File; EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Structure-Index Locator File; FDA National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR); National Toxicology Program (NTP) On-line Chemical Bioassay Database; National Toxicology Program (NTP) High-Throughput Screening Project Structure-Index File

Ecological Soil Screening Level Database (EcoSSL)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. EPA
  • Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) derivation process represents the collaborative effort of a multi-stakeholder workgroup consisting of federal, state, consulting, industry and academic participants led by the U.S. EPA, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. It is emphasized that the Eco-SSLs are soil screening numbers, and as such are not appropriate for use as cleanup levels. Screening ecotoxicity values are derived to avoid underestimating risk. Requiring a cleanup based solely on Eco-SSL values would not be technically defensible. The Eco-SSL web site provides an overview of the contaminant. Separate discussions are provided for each receptor group including a comprehensive list of literature evaluated under the effort, and a summary of data used in deriving Eco-SSL values. For each chemical, Eco-SSL documents are provided in a PDF format which requires the Acrobat Reader. For some documents HTML versions are available with linkages to the toxicity data records within the U.S. EPA’s ECOTOX database.

ECOTOXicology Database (ECOTOX)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. EPA
  • The ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) is a source for locating single chemical toxicity data for aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. ECOTOX was created and is maintained by the U.S.EPA, Office of Research and Development (ORD).

Environmental Contaminants Data Management System (ECDMS)

  • Restricted Access
  • Contact: Ken Crabb, ken_crabb@fws.gov
  • Source: U.S. FWS
  • ECDMS is a web-based application used to store biological, geographic, chemical analysis, and administrative data from samples collected in the U.S. to assess environmental pollution. The system allows Environmental Contaminants Biologists, other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) personnel, and other Department of the Interior Bureaus to store and access contaminant data on fish and wildlife, and their supporting habitats. In addition, ECDMS provides an array of tools, processes, and features which link the biologist with the administrators, quality assurance officers, and laboratories that perform the chemical analyses. ECDMS has been operational since March 1991. As of April 2019, the ECDMS database contained sample and analytical results information for over 106,000 samples, and is still growing. These data represent over 924 different species and 982 different analytes. Samples have been submitted from all 50 states, and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. It also contains samples and results from over 287 FWS refuges. The ECDMS database continues to grow annually with an average of 2,000 samples and over 100,000 analytical results and QA/QC data. The ECDMS database contains over 3.5 million records. ECDMS is a restricted system and requires a username and password for access. There are no general query capabilities. However, the Wildlife and Contaminants Mapper (link to: https://ecos.fws.gov/ecdms4/) has been created to allow for general querying of ECDMS and downloading of results data. An introduction can be found here (link to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_F6hBWlDyo). Also, the Analytical Control Facility (ACF) will be happy to query the database for you. ECDMS is managed by ACF which is a branch under the Division of Ecological Services within the U.S. FWS.

Environmental Residue-Effects Database (ERED)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. ACE/U.S. EPA
  • The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Residue-Effects Database (ERED) is a compilation of data, taken from the literature, where biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, etc.) and tissue contaminant concentrations were simultaneously measured in the same organism. Currently, the database is limited to those instances where biological effects observed in an organism are linked to a specific contaminant within its tissues.

Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOX)

  • Public Access
  • Source: UC Davis
  • Various types of pesticide toxicology and environmental chemistry information are available. These include discussions of toxicological issues of concern (TICs), toxicology newsletters, other resources for toxicology information, toxicology fact sheets, Pesticide Information Profiles (PIPs), and Toxicology Information Briefs (TIBs). In addition, various closed mailing groups are utilized for EXTOXNET participants to facilitate communication and response to requests for information.

Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessments (EcoNOTEs)

  • Public Access
  • Source: State of California
  • In addition to regulatory oversight of California hazardous waste sites and permitted facilities, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) is a CERCLA delegated California co-trustee for natural resources together with the California Department of Fish and Game. The DTSC Ecological Risk Assessment web site contains DTSC guidance on ERA methodology (DTSC, 1996), the listing of the current U.S. EPA Region 9 Biological Technical Assistance Group (BTAG) vertebrate Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs), a USFWS evaluation of the biological importance of multiple avian broods, individual body weights for select California species and a series of EcoNOTEs on various ERA topics not covered by the basic DTSC 1996 ERA guidance.

Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. EPA
  • The Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) application estimates acute toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms for use in risk assessment. Web-ICE estimates acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, genus, or family from the known toxicity of the chemical to a surrogate species. Web-ICE has modules to predict acute toxicity to aquatic (fish and invertebrates) and wildlife (birds and mammals) taxa for use in ecological risk assessments, and also contains modules that generate Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) from Web-ICE generated data.

National Wildlife Research Center Chemical Effects Database

  • Public Access
  • Contact: Diana Dwyer, Diana.L.Dwyer@aphis.usda.gov
  • Source: USDA
  • The NWRC Toxicity Database is currently an internal database and is not internet accessible. The National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) Toxicity Database is a SAS-based, searchable, in-house database that contains records and data for identified chemicals that were tested by the NWRC and its predecessors from 1959 to 1987. It also contains data on some chemicals tested between 1943 and 1959 by the Denver Research Laboratory (a predecessor of NWRC) in collaboration with Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. All totaled, there are internally reviewed data on approximately 7,600 chemicals in the database. As more records are reviewed, additional data may be incorporated in the database. The chemicals were variously tested for repellency and/or toxicity to wild and domestic species including birds (26 species), mammals (34 species), and plants (16 species). The data is searchable by CAS number, Denver Research Center number, chemical name, or common name.

OPP Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database (EFED)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. EPA
  • The Ecological Fate and Effects Division of the Office of Pesticide Programs is continuing efforts to develop a database of presently known ecotoxicity endpoints for registered pesticides used in the U.S. Toxicity data on over 660 active ingredients and 761 individual active ingredients, metabolites, and multi-ingredient formulations are presently included in the database. The toxicity database is compiled from actual studies reviewed by EPA in conjunction with pesticide registration or reregistration, and studies performed by USEPA, USDA and USFWS laboratories which have been reviewed by Ecological Effects Branch biologists and judged acceptable for use in the ecological risk assessment process. The database presently contains entries for over 14,500 acute and chronic ecotoxicity studies on terrestrial and aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, insects, amphibians, fish, birds, reptiles, and wild mammals. The database is written in DBase III+ and contains 32 fields per record entry. Each record entry summarizes one ecotoxicity study for one species or one toxicity endpoint from a multiple species study.

PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. EPA
  • Database to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic effects. The purpose is to develop PCB critical residue values for fish, mammals and birds, especially as these relate to aquatic and aquatic-dependent species. This database also includes expression of critical residue values based upon PCB Aroclors and total PCB-based congener specific methods because PCBs occur as complex mixtures. Limited dioxin and furan compounds in single and mixture studies are also included.

Pesticide Action Network (PAN)

  • Public Access
  • Source: PAN
  • The PAN Pesticide Database brings together a diverse array of information on pesticides from many different sources, providing human toxicity (acute and chronic), ecotoxicity and regulatory information for about 6,400 pesticide active ingredients and their transformation products, as well as adjuvants and solvents used in pesticide products. This database of active ingredients has been integrated with U.S. EPA product databases, which provide information on formulated products (the form of the pesticide that growers and consumers purchase for use) containing the active ingredients. The information is most complete for pesticides registered for use in the United States.

Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Reports

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. Geological Survey
  • National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) produces quarterly mortality reports, containing information about wildlife mortality events throughout the United States and on occasion across North America. These reports are compiled from a database of wildlife mortality events maintained at NWHC. Data are gathered by Field Investigations Team personnel from collaborations across the country, at the federal, state and local levels. Information is most complete from 1975 on, but some data are available from earlier years.

Risk Assessment for Birds and Mammals

  • Public Access
  • Source: EFSA
  • This document is a revision of the European Food Safety Authority guidance on risk assessment in birds and mammals. A tiered approach is presented to assess the risk of mortality and reproductive effects. The assessment results in a toxicity-exposure-ration or the number of lethal doses applied per square meter as measures of risk. The level of protection provided by this first-tier procedure were evaluated taking into account conservatism of the assumptions, uncertainties arising from omitted factors, and evidence of actual effects in field studies or incident monitoring. Guidance is also provided on options for higher tier risk assessments.

Seabird Ecological Assessment Network (SEANET)

  • Public Access
  • Contact: John Stanton, john_stanton@fws.gov
  • Source: MDI Biological Laboratory‘s Community Lab
  • The Seabird Ecological Assessment Network (SEANET) is a citizen science program that brings together interdisciplinary researchers and citizen scientists in a long-term collaborative effort to identify and mitigate threats to marine birds.  SEANET volunteers conduct beached bird surveys in order to identify and record information about bird mortality along the east coast of the United States. Data collected by hundreds of SEANET volunteers are used to examine the spatial pattern of bird carcass deposition and how it varies across time.

TOXNET

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. Lib of Medicine
  • TOXNET® (TOXicology Data NETwork) is a group of databases (e.g., HSBD, TOXLINE, TOXMAP, TRI, HAZMAT, IRIS) covering chemicals and drugs, diseases and the environment, environmental health, occupational safety and health, poisoning, risk assessment and regulations, and toxicology.

USGS Wildlife Health Information Sharing Partnership (WHISPers)

  • Public Access
  • Source: U.S. Geological Survey
  • The National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) WHISPers is a partner-driven, web-based repository for sharing basic information about historic and ongoing wildlife mortality (death) and morbidity (illness) events in North America. Events typically involve five or more sick or dead wild animals observed in the same general location and time period. This information is collected opportunistically and provided here by multiple State, Federal, and other agencies to enhance collective understanding of disease in wildlife populations.

Wildlife Disease & Contaminant Monitoring and Surveillance network

  • Public Access
  • Source: Wildcoms
  • The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) is a public-sector research centre - part of the Natural Environment Research Council(NERC) – which delivers independent research, survey, training and knowledge transfer in the environmental sciences to advance knowledge of planet  Earth as a complex, interacting system.

Wildlife Informaton Network/Wildpro

  • Public Access
  • Source: Wildpro
  • The database includes studies of wildlife, companion, and livestock animals, where either the exposure or the health effect could be considered potentially relevant to human health.

Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook

  • Public Access
  • Source: EPA
  • The Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook provides data, references, and guidance for conducting exposure assessments for wildlife species exposed to toxic chemicals in their environment. The goals of this Handbook are (1) to promote the application of risk assessment methods to wildlife species, (2) to foster a consistent approach to wildlife exposure and risk assessments, and (3) to increase the accessibility of the literature applicable to these assessments.

Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme (WIIS)

  • Public Access
  • Source: Health and Safety Executive
  • The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme (WIIS) investigates wildlife deaths in England and Wales where there is evidence that pesticide poisoning may be involved. WIIS monitors pesticide use after approval, so that product approvals can be revised if necessary, and provides a measure of the success of the pesticide registration process.

Wildlife Toxicology Reference Values (TRVs)

  • Public Access
  • Source: DOD
  • An integral component of a wildlife ecological risk assessment is the development of some quantitative measure of the toxicity of a chemical to the animals of concern. This measure is often referred to as a toxicity reference value or TRV. Our Center has developed, and is implementing, a standard method for developing toxicological profiles and toxicity reference values for military related substances that may potentially pose risks to wildlife. Our Technical Guide 254 provides the standard practice for the development and documentation of wildlife TRVs. It is written primarily for risk assessors.