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Below are publications associated with the Southwest Biological Science Center's research.

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Filter Total Items: 1270

Crop water use dynamics over arid and semi-arid croplands in the lower Colorado River Basin

Numerous studies have evaluated the application of Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for mapping actual evapotranspiration (ETa) using Vegetation-Index-based (VI-based) and surface energy balance methods (SEB). SEB models computationally require a large effort for application. VI-based methods are fast and easy to apply and could therefore potentially be applied at high resolution; however, the accur
Neda Abbasi, Hamideh Nouri, Pamela L. Nagler, Kamel Didan, Sattar Chavoshi Borujeni, Armando Barreto-Muñoz, Christian Opp, Stefan Siebert

Supplying ecosystem services on US rangelands

Rangelands comprise 40% of the conterminous United States and they supply essential ecosystem services to society. A scenario assessment was conducted to determine how accelerating biophysical and societal drivers may modify their future availability. Four scenarios emerged: two may maintain rural communities by sustaining the prevailing ecosystem service of beef cattle production, and two may tra
David D. Briske, Steven R. Archer, Emily Burchfield, William Burnidge, Justin D. Derner, Hannah Gosnell, Jerry Hatfield, Clare E. Kazanski, Mona Khalil, Tyler J. Lark, Pamela L. Nagler, Osvaldo E. Sala, Nathan F. Sayre, Kimberly R. Stackhouse-Lawson

Time, climate, and soil settings set the course for reclamation outcomes following dryland energy development

Soil attributes, climate, and time since reclamation have important implications for oil and gas reclamation success on drylands. It is uncertain if reclaimed well pads, on highly degraded drylands, can successfully regain ecological function or meet indicator benchmarks for reclamation. Here, our goals were to assess patterns in reclamation outcomes relative to (1) soil attributes, climate, and t
Randi Corrine Lupardus, Aarin Sengsirirak, Keven Griffen, Anna C Knight, Brandon E McNellis, John B. Bradford, Seth M. Munson, Sasha C. Reed, Miguel L. Villarreal, Michael C. Duniway

Biophysical factors control invasive annual grass hot spots in the Mojave Desert

Invasive annual grasses can promote ecosystem state changes and habitat loss in the American Southwest. Non-native annual grasses such as Bromus spp. and Schismus spp. have invaded the Mojave Desert and degraded habitat through increased fire occurrence, severity, and shifting plant community composition. Thus, it is important to identify and characterize the areas where persistent invasion has oc
Tanner Corless Smith, Tara B.B. Bishop, Michael C. Duniway, Miguel L. Villarreal, Anna C Knight, Seth M. Munson, Eric K. Waller, Ryan Jensen, Richard A. Gill

Landscape diversity promotes stable food-web architectures in large rivers

Uncovering relationships between landscape diversity and species interactions is crucial for predicting how ongoing land-use change and homogenization will impact the stability and persistence of communities. However, such connections have rarely been quantified in nature. We coupled high-resolution river sonar imaging with annualized energetic food webs to quantify relationships among habitat div
Eric Arthur Scholl, Wyatt F. Cross, Christopher S. Guy, Addie J. Dutton, James R. Junker

Migration timing and tributary use of spawning flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis)

Spawning phenology and associated migrations of fishes are often regulated by factors such as temperature and stream discharge, but flow regulation of mainstem rivers coupled with climate change might disrupt these cues and affect fitness. Flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) persisting in heavily modified river networks are known to spawn in tributaries that might provide better spawning h
Sophia M. Bonjour, Keith B. Gido, Mark C. McKinstry, Charles N. Cathcart, Matthew R. Bogaard, Maria C. Dzul, Brian Daniel Healy, Zachary E. Hooley-Underwood, David L. Rogowski, Charles Yackulic

Genetic erosion in an endangered desert fish during a multidecadal megadrought despite long-term supportive breeding

Human water use combined with a recent megadrought have reduced river and stream flow through the Southwestern United States and led to periodic drying of formerly perennial river segments. Reductions in snowmelt runoff and increased extent of drying collectively threaten short-lived, obligate aquatic species, including the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow. This species experiences ‘boom-and-b
Megan J. Osborne, Thomas P. Archdeacon, Charles Yackulic, Robert K. Dudley, Guilherme Caeiro-Dias, Thomas F. Turner

Ecosystem resilience to invasion and drought: Insights after 24 years in a rare never-grazed grassland

Understanding the resilience of ecosystems globally is hampered by the complex and interacting drivers of change characteristic of the Anthropocene. This is true for drylands of the western US, where widespread alteration of disturbance regimes and spread of invasive non-native species occurred with westward expansion during the 1800s, including the introduction of domestic livestock and spread of
Michael C. Duniway, Rebecca A Finger-Higgens, Erika L. Geiger, David L. Hoover, Alix Pfennigwerth, Anna C Knight, M. Van Scoyoc, Mark E. Miller, Jayne Belnap

A recruitment niche framework for improving seed-based restoration

As larger tracts of land experience degradation, seed-based restoration (SBR) will be a primary tool to reestablish vegetation and ecosystem function. SBR has advanced in terms of technical and technological approaches, yet plant recruitment remains a major barrier in some systems, notably drylands. There is an unmet opportunity to test science-based approaches to seed mix design and application,
Julie E. Larson, A. C. Agneray, Chad S. Boyd, John B. Bradford, O. A. Kildisheva, Katharine N. Suding, Stella M. Copeland

Successful eradication of invasive American bullfrogs leads to coextirpation of emerging pathogens

Interventions of the host–pathogen dynamics provide strong tests of relationships, yet they are still rarely applied across multiple populations. After American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) invaded a wildlife refuge where federally threatened Chiricahua leopard frogs (R. chiricahuensis) were reintroduced 12 years prior, managers launched a landscape-scale eradication effort to help ensure continue
Blake R. Hossack, David L. Hall, Catherine L. Crawford, Caren S. Goldberg, Erin L. Muths, Brent H. Sigafus, Thierry Chambert

Storms and pH of dam releases affect downstream phosphorus cycling in an arid regulated river

Reservoirs often bury phosphorus (P), leading to seasonal or persistent reductions in P supply to downstream rivers. Here we ask if observed variation in the chemistry of dam release waters stimulates downstream sediment P release and biological activity in an arid, oligotrophic system, the Colorado River below Lake Powell, Arizona, USA. We use bottle incubations to simulate a range of observed pH
Bridget Deemer, Robin H. Reibold, Anna Fatta, Jessica R. Corman, Charles Yackulic, Sasha C. Reed

Connecting dryland fine-fuel assessments to wildfire exposure and natural resource values at risk

BackgroundWildland fire in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions can intensify when climatic, biophysical, and land-use factors increase fuel load and continuity. To inform wildland fire management under these conditions, we developed high-resolution (10-m) estimates of fine fuel across the Altar Valley in southern Arizona, USA, which spans dryland, grass-dominated ecosystems that are administered
Adam Gerhard Wells, Seth M. Munson, Miguel L. Villarreal, Steven E. Sesnie, Katherine M. Laushman