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Scientists performing monitoring duties in the Alaska Volcano Observatory operations room. (Credit: McGimsey, Game. Public domain.)

Volcano monitoring and research conducted at five U.S. volcano observatories advances our understanding of active volcanism and its impacts, and enables the USGS Volcano Hazards Program to provide information about and warnings of volcanic activity in the United States.

Each observatory is assigned a geographic area of responsibility and issues formal notices of activity for volcanoes in those regions. The observatories and their partner organizations operate real-time volcano monitoring networks, disseminate forecasts and notifications of significant activity, assess volcano hazards, conduct scientific research into volcanic processes, and work with communities to prepare for volcanic eruptions.

Alaska Volcano Observatory

USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory staff, June 2019
USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory staff, June 2019. (Credit: Liz Westby. Public domain.)

Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) covers volcanoes in Alaska from offices in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska. AVO is a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. The Scientist-in-Charge of AVO also coordinates the monitoring of volcanic activity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, a U.S. Territory. 

USGS California Volcano Observatory

USGS California Volcano Observatory (CalVO) covers volcanoes in California and Nevada from the USGS offices in Menlo Park, California. 

USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory

USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) covers volcanoes in Washington, Oregon and Idaho, and is located in Vancouver, Washington. CVO coordinates with the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, headquartered at the University of Washington in Seattle to provide seismic monitoring of volcanoes in the region. 

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff, September 2018.
USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff, September 2018. (Public domain.)

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) covers volcanoes in the state of Hawaii and is located on the Island of Hawai‘i in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park

Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) covers the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and its caldera. The YVO is a consortium of 8 organizations: U.S. Geological Survey, University of UtahYellowstone National ParkUNAVCO (a non-profit university-governed consortium), University of WyomingMontana State University, and the state geological surveys of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. The Scientist-in-Charge of YVO also monitors volcanic activity in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.