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Trained emulators from the spheroid90gp software package

This data release contains materials related to the spheroid90gp software package, including pre-trained Gaussian Process emulators and model input files. The emulators predict cavity compressibility and surface displacements produced by pressure changes in a vertical spheroidal cavity embedded in an elastic halfspace. The methodology is documented in a journal publication ("Computationally effici

National Volcanic Threat Layer

There are 161 active volcanoes in the U.S. and its territories. These volcanoes pose differing degrees of risk to people and infrastructure because of differences in their eruptive styles and geographic locations. This layer shows the areas near volcanic vents that could be affected by proximal volcano hazards, including ballistics (airborne rocks from explosions), pyroclastic density currents, la

Lava fountain heights and associated timelapse images during the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Island of Hawaiʻi

The 2018 eruption from the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi, was one of the most significant and destructive events on the volcano in the past 200 years (Neal and others, 2019; Patrick and others, 2020; Anderson and others, 2023; Mulliken and others, 2024). Between May and September of that year, 24 fissures opened on the lower flank of the volcano, producing lava

Plumeria Simulations of 20 December 2020 Kīlauea Volcano Eruption Plume

This data release contains results of model simulations of a plume at Kilauea volcano that occurred on 20 December 2020. The ash-poor plume was produced when lava flowed into a water lake at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Simulations were conducted to constrain the conditions under which the plume rose to its observed height. The analysis and results are described in the accompanying paper: Cahala

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Hawaiian volcanoes, 2018-2022

Measurement of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates is a critical aspect of monitoring and studying active volcanoes. Changes in emission rate are often associated with changes in volcanic activity and in some cases may herald future changes in activity. At the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), emission rates of SO2 from Hawaiian volcanoes have been measured by ultraviolet spectrometer since the

Stochastic lava flow forecasting code used during the 2014-2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis, Kīlauea Volcano, Island of Hawai‘i

The 1983-2018 Puʻuʻōʻō eruption, on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano, consisted of many different episodes and several phases of lava flows threatening residential areas (Heliker and Mattox 2003; Orr and others 2015).  One of these crises occurred in 2014-2015, when lava erupting from Puʻuʻōʻō advanced north of the rift zone, towards the town of Pāhoa (Poland and others 2016; Brantley and o

Vesicularity, grain size, and grain shape of basaltic pyroclasts from Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, Island of Hawaiʻi

This dataset includes sample information, vesicularity by pycnometer, grain size and shape data by CAMSIZER, and measurements of crushed and thin section mounted grains by microscope. All studied samples were from scoria and air-fall-tephra deposits (most formed in Hawaiian lava fountains) collected around the summits of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea volcanoes, Island of Hawaiʻi. These data were used to d

Mineralogy, chemistry and isotope composition of silica sinter deposits from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (ver. 2.0, April 2021)

Summary: Siliceous sinter samples were collected from multiple geysers in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in 2018. These silica sinter samples were collected and analyzed as a part of a multi-year research investigation into the age and geochemistry of hydrothermal features in the Upper Geyser Basin. Samples were collected along the stratigraphy of each feature. From these samp

Silicified wood from around Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

Old Faithful Geyser in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park is one of the best studied geysers in the world. Under research permit YELL-SCI-8030, samples from 13 silicified tree remnants were collected adjacent to the Old Faithful Geyser cone in April and November 2019. The silicified wood samples were dated using the radiocarbon (14C) method and were analyzed by scanning electron m

Water and gas chemistry data from wells and hot springs in the Western USA, 1930 – 2006

Historical water and gas chemistry data from geothermal areas are important for detecting long-term patterns, informing geothermal energy exploration, development, and use, and for contextualizing more recent data. The U.S. Geological survey has published water and gas chemistry data from geothermal areas in the western United States, which is primarily available as scanned PDF files. This makes

Thermal camera images of lava lake and crater filling activity at Puʻuʻōʻō, East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano, Island of Hawaiʻi, 2011-2019

The 35-year-long Puʻuʻōʻō eruption, on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano, was the longest volcanic eruption on the Island of Hawaiʻi in the past 100 years (Wright and Klein 2014; Mulliken and others 2023). The eruption, whose vent area was focused at and around Puʻuʻōʻō cone, produced episodic fountaining in its initial few years followed by decades of effusive activity that created an expans

Keanakākoʻi Tephra unit D, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii: sample details, grain size, and grain shape data for 100 tephra samples

A total of 100 samples were collected from two proximal sections of Keanakākoʻi, Tephra unit D deposits. Samples were analyzed on Microtrac CAMSIZER® P4 and X2 instruments for grain size and shape data in the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) tephra lab. Data release includes sample descriptions, half phi grain size distributions, and statistical output from DECOLOG deconvolution modeling of