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PMIP3/CMIP5 lgm simulated temperature data for North America downscaled to a 10-km grid

January 30, 2023

This data set consists of monthly long-term mean temperature data (degrees C) for the last glacial maximum (21 ka) downscaled to a 10-km grid of North America. The 10-km data were derived using simulated temperature data from 10 general circulation models (GCMs; CCSM4, CNRM-CM5, COSMOS-ASO, FGOALS-g2, GISS-E2-R, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM, MPI-ESM-P-OA, MPI-ESM-P-OAC, and MRI-CGCM3) run under the PMIP3/CMIP5 (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 3 / Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) "lgm" and "piControl" experiments. The lgm and piControl data are available from the Earth System Grid - Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET; Additional information about the data is available from the CMIP5 ( and PMIP3 ( web sites. The names of the lgm and piControl files we used are listed in the "source_file" global attribute of each GCM temperature netCDF file in this data release. For each GCM, the PMIP3/CMIP5 lgm temperature data were bias corrected using long-term mean differences calculated as the lgm long-term mean minus the piControl long-term mean. These long-term mean differences were regridded to a North America 10-km Lambert azimuthal equal-area grid using the CDO (Climate Data Operators, bilinear interpolation function "remapbil". We used ICE-5G (VM2) data (Peltier, 2004) to identify grid cells with ice cover at 21 ka. The interpolated long-term mean differences were applied to CRU CL 2.0 (1961-1990 30-year mean) climate data (New et al., 2002). The CRU CL 2.0 data were also regridded to the 10-km grid using local lapse-rate adjusted interpolation (Praskievicz and Bartlein, 2014). The ensemble mean data (section 2 below) were calculated using the bias corrected temperature data from the 10 GCM simulations listed in section 1 (below). The GCM and ensemble mean data have been used for analyses in Marshall et al. (2021). References Marshall, J.A., Roering, J.J., Rempel, A.W., Shafer, S.L., and Bartlein, P.J., 2021, Extensive frost weathering across unglaciated North America during the Last Glacial Maximum: Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2020GL090305, New, M., Lister, D., Hulme, M., and Makin, I., 2002, A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas: Climate Research, 21, 1-25, Peltier, W.R., 2004, Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age Earth: the ICE-5G (VM2) model and GRACE: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 32, 111-149, Praskievicz, S., and Bartlein, P., 2014, Hydrologic modeling using elevationally adjusted NARR and NARCCAP regional climate-model simulations: Tucannon River, Washington: Journal of Hydrology, 517, 803-814, Unidata, 2011, Network Common Data Form (netCDF) version 4.1.3 [software]: UCAR/Unidata, Boulder, Colorado,

Citation Information

Publication Year 2023
Title PMIP3/CMIP5 lgm simulated temperature data for North America downscaled to a 10-km grid
DOI 10.5066/P9KC0L47
Authors Sarah Shafer, Patrick J Bartlein, Kenji Izumi
Product Type Data Release
Record Source USGS Digital Object Identifier Catalog
USGS Organization Geosciences and Environmental Change Science Center