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Below is a sampling of Laboratory for Infectious Disease and the Environment publications.

Filter Total Items: 13

Sources and risk factors for nitrate and microbial contamination of private household wells in the fractured dolomite aquifer of northeastern Wisconsin

Background:Groundwater quality in the Silurian dolomite aquifer in northeastern Wisconsin, USA, has become contentious as dairy farms and exurban development expand.Objectives:We investigated private household wells in the region, determining the extent, sources, and risk factors of nitrate and microbial contamination.Methods:Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and nitrate were evaluated by synopti

Quantitative microbial risk assessment for contaminated private wells in the fractured dolomite aquifer of Kewaunee County, Wisconsin

Background:Private wells are an important source of drinking water in Kewaunee County, Wisconsin. Due to the region’s fractured dolomite aquifer, these wells are vulnerable to contamination by human and zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogens originating from land-applied cattle manure and private septic systems.Objective:We determined the magnitude of the health burden associated with contamination o

Viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens and fecal markers in wells supplying groundwater to public water systems in Minnesota, USA

Drinking water supply wells can be contaminated by a broad range of waterborne pathogens. However, groundwater assessments frequently measure microbial indicators or a single pathogen type, which provides a limited characterization of potential health risk. This study assessed contamination of wells by testing for viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens and fecal markers. Wells supplying groundw

Septic systems and rainfall influence human fecal markers and indicator organisms occurrence in private wells in southeastern Pennsylvania

In the United States approximately 48 million people are served by private wells. Unlike public water systems, private well water quality is not monitored and there are few studies on the extent and sources of contamination of private wells. We extensively investigated five private wells to understand the variability in microbial contamination, the role of septic systems as sources of contaminatio

Laboratory for Infectious Disease and the Environment (LIDE)

The Laboratory for Infectious Disease and the Environment (LIDE) studies the occurrence, fate and transport, and health effects of human and agricultural zoonotic pathogens in the environment. The LIDE is an interagency collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service that conducts research to inform decision makers and ad

Cryptosporidium incidence and surface water influence of groundwater supplying public water systems in Minnesota, USA

Regulations for public water systems (PWS) in the U.S. consider Cryptosporidium a microbial contaminant of surface water supplies. Ground- water is assumed free of Cryptosporidium unless surface water is entering supply wells. We determined the incidence of Cryptosporidium in PWS wells varying in surface water influence. Community and noncommunity PWS wells (n = 145) were sampled (n = 964) and anal

Automated time-series measurement of microbial concentrations in groundwater-derived water supplies

Fecal contamination by human and animal pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, is a potential human health hazard, especially with regards to drinking water. Pathogen occurrence in groundwater varies considerably in space and time, which can be difficult to characterize as sampling typically requires hundreds of liters of water to be passed through a filter. Here we describe the des

Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks

Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fe

Quantitative microbial risk assessment for spray irrigation of dairy manure based on an empirical fate and transport model

BACKGROUND: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) estimate human health risks due to aerosolized zoonotic pathogens downwind of

Avian influenza virus RNA in groundwater wells supplying poultry farms affected by the 2015 influenza outbreak

During the 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) on poultry farms in the midwestern United States, concern was raised about the potential for HPAI to contaminate groundwater. Our study objective was to evaluate the occurrence of HPAI in the groundwater supply wells on 13 outbreak-affected poultry farms in Iowa and Wisconsin. We sampled 20 wells, six waste-storage lagoons,

U.S. Geological Survey science strategy for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wildlife and the environment (2016–2020)

IntroductionThrough the Science Strategy for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Wildlife and the Environment, the USGS will assess avian influenza (AI) dynamics in an ecological context to inform decisions made by resource managers and policymakers from the local to national level. Through collection of unbiased scientific information on the ecology of AI viruses and wildlife hosts in a c

Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR

The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay alone rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop an approach to determine the 95% LOD (lowest concentration at which 95% of positive samples are detected) for the entire process of waterb