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Publications

Below is a list of available MMFS peer reviewed and published science.

Filter Total Items: 82

Herring Disease Program - Annual Project Report 2012011-E, February 1, 2010-January 31, 2021

We will investigate fish health factors that may be contributing to the failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound. Field samples will provide infection and disease prevalence data from Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound to inform the age structured assessment (ASA) model, serological data will indicate the prior exposure history and future susceptibility of herring t

Long-term shedding from fully convalesced individuals indicates that Pacific herring are a reservoir for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

Processes that allow viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus to persist in the marine environment remain enigmatic, owing largely to the presence of covert and cryptic infections in marine fishes during typical sub-epizootic periods. As such, marine host reservoirs for VHS virus have not been fully demonstrated, nor have the mechanism(s) by which infected hosts contribute to virus perpetuation an

Differential susceptibility of Yukon River and Salish Sea stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to ichthyophoniasis

Preliminary evidence suggests that Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yukon River may be more susceptible to Ichthyophonus sp. infections than Chinook from stocks further south. To investigate this hypothesis in a controlled environment, we experimentally challenged juvenile Chinook from the Yukon River and from the Salish Sea with Ichthyophonus sp. and evaluated mortality, infection

Novel diagnostic tests for the putative agent of bacterial gill disease in Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

Nuclear inclusion X (NIX) is a gamma proteobacteria that infects the nuclei of gill epithelial cells in Pacific razor clams. NIX has been associated with clam die-offs in coastal Washington. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to detect NIX in Pacific razor clams, and assay specificity was confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Both tests were applied to evaluate NIX infe

Anadromous coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii as a host for Argulus pugettensis (Crustacea, Branchiura): Parasite prevalence, intensity and distribution

Coastal cutthroat trout [Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Richardson, 1836)] from the marine waters of Puget Sound, WA, was documented as a new host for the ectoparasite Argulus pugettensis (Dana, 1852). The prevalence of A. pugettensis was 66% (49 of 74) on cutthroat trout and 0% (0 of 55) on coho salmon [O. kisutch (Walbaum, 1792)] collected during the winter of 2017/2018. Infestations occurred mos

Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to vibriosis from Vibrio anguillarum or V. ordalii under laboratory conditions

The ubiquity of Vibrio spp. throughout the coastal marine waters of the Pacific Northwest of North America raises questions about the susceptibility of native marine fishes, including Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). Early reports of Vibriolike disease (Rucker et al., 1954; Walford, 1958) and Vibrio sp. isolations (Pacha & Kiehn, 1969) in Pacific herring remain questionable because both occurred

Herring Disease Program II 19120111-E - 2019 Annual Report

We will investigate fish health factors that may be contributing to the failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound. Field samples will provide infection and disease prevalence data from Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound that will inform the ASA model, serological data that will indicate the prior exposure history and future susceptibility of herring to VHS, and diet

Climate change can drive marine diseases

As an ultimate driver of marine ecosystem processes, climate change is expected to influence proximate disease drivers in marine systems. The observable effects of climate change, including changes in temperature, hypoxia, CO2 accumulation, precipitation, and storm and cyclone frequencies and intensities, may directly act as proximate drivers of marine disease, especially in poikilotherms. These c

Ichthyophonus sp. Infection in Opaleye (Girella nigricans)

Over a 3-year-period, 17 wild-caught opaleye (Girella nigricans) housed in a public display aquarium were found dead without premonitory signs. Grossly, 4 animals had pinpoint brown or black foci on coelomic adipose tissue. Histologically, liver, spleen, heart, and posterior kidney had mesomycetozoan granulomas in all cases; other organs were less commonly infected. Four opaleye had goiter; additi

Modeling pathogen dispersal in marine fish and shellfish

Bio-physical models are a useful tool for understanding dispersal and transmission of marine pathogens. While utilized for larval dispersal models, they are only recently being used in epidemiological studies and are currently underutilized by the marine epidemiology field. Bio-physical models are useful for spatial planning and coastal management. For example, they have been used for spatial pla

A geographic hot spot of Ichthyophonus infection in the southern Salish Sea, USA

The prevalence of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii was spatially heterogeneous in the southern Salish Sea, Washington State, USA. Over the course of 13 mo, 2232 Pacific herring were sampled from 38 midwater trawls throughout the region. Fork length was positively correlated with Ichthyophonus infection at all sites. After controlling for the positive relationship between

Evaluating the potential for sea lice to evolve freshwater tolerance as a consequence of freshwater treatments in salmon aquaculture

Increasing usage of non-medicinal methods (NMMs) to control sea louse infestations on salmon farms has raised questions about whether sea lice may be able to evolve tolerance of NMMs. Of particular concern is the potential for sea lice to evolve freshwater tolerance as a result of freshwater treatments. Wild trout and some juvenile salmonids swim into freshwater to control infestations and regain