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Publications

Below is a list of available MMFS peer reviewed and published science.

Filter Total Items: 88

Characteristics of a sea louse (Caligus clemensi) epizootic in wild Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

We characterized a natural sea louse epizootic of Caligus clemensi and the effects of parasitism on Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in Port Angeles Harbor, WA, USA. Infestation prevalence on newly metamorphosed age 0 Pacific herring reached 100% prevalence by mid-August. At this time, the mean louse intensity was 4.6 lice/fish, and a positive correlation occurred between louse intensity and herrin
Authors
David James Páez, Jacob L. Gregg, Ashley MacKenzie, Sophie Amanda Hall, Paul Hershberger

Evaluating the effect of nuclear inclusion X (NIX) infections on Pacific razor clam populations

ABSTRACT: Nuclear inclusion X (NIX), the etiological agent of bacterial gill disease in Pacific razor clams Siliqua patula, was associated with host mortality events in coastal Washington State, USA, during the mid-1980s. Ongoing observations of truncated razor clam size distributions in Kalaloch Beach, Washington, raised concerns that NIX continues to impact populations. We conducted a series of
Authors
Maya Groner, Paul Hershberger, Steven C. Fradkin, Carla M. Conway, Aine Marie Alice Campbell Hawthorn, Maureen K. Purcell

A phylogeny based on cytochrome-c oxidase gene sequences identifies sympatric Ichthyophonus genotypes in the NE Pacific Ocean

ABSTRACT: In recent decades, evidence has accumulated to suggest that the widespread and highly variable parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi is actually a species complex. Highly plastic morphology and a general lack of defining structures has contributed to the likely underestimate of biodiversity within this group. Molecular methods are a logical next step in the description of these parasites, but ma
Authors
Jacob L. Gregg, Paul Hershberger, Abigail S. Neat, Hiruni T. Jayasekera, Jayde A. Ferguson, Rachel L. Powers, Maureen K. Purcell

A novel approach for directly incorporating disease into fish stock assessment: A case study with seroprevalence data

When estimating mortality from disease with fish population models, common disease surveillance data such as infection prevalence are not always informative, especially for fast-acting diseases that may go unobserved in infrequently sampled populations. In these cases, seroprevalence — the proportion of fish with measurable antibody levels in their blood — may be more informative. In cases of life
Authors
John T. Trochta, Maya Groner, Paul Hershberger, Trevor A. Branch

Warming sea surface temperatures fuel summer epidemics of eelgrass wasting disease

Seawater temperatures are increasing, with many unquantified impacts on marine diseases. While prolonged temperature stress can accelerate host-pathogen interactions, the outcomes in nature are poorly quantified. We monitored eelgrass wasting disease (EWD) from 2013-2017 and correlated mid-summer prevalence of EWD with remotely sensed seawater temperature metrics before, during, and after the 2015
Authors
Maya Groner, Morgan E. Eisenlord, Reyn M. Yoshioka, Evan A. Fiorenza, Phoebe D. Dawkins, Olivia J. Graham, Miranda Winningham, Alex Vompe, Natalie D. Rivlin, Bo Yang, Colleen A. Burge, Brendan Rappazzo, Carla P. Gomes, C. Drew Harvell

Annual recurrences of viral hemorrhagic septicemia epizootics in age 0 Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes, 1847

Throughout a 20 year biosurveillance period, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus was isolated in low titers from only 6/7355 opportunistically sampled adult Pacific herring, reflecting the typical endemic phase of the disease when the virus persists covertly. However, more focused surveillance efforts identified the presence of disease hot spots occurring among juvenile life history stages from cer
Authors
Paul Hershberger, Theodore R. Meyers, Jacob L. Gregg, Maya Groner, Sophie Amanda Hall, Hiruni T. Jayasekera, Ashley MacKenzie, Abigail S. Neat, Ella N. Piatt, Kyle A. Garver

Herring Disease Program - Annual Project Report 2012011-E, February 1, 2010-January 31, 2021

We will investigate fish health factors that may be contributing to the failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound. Field samples will provide infection and disease prevalence data from Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound to inform the age structured assessment (ASA) model, serological data will indicate the prior exposure history and future susceptibility of herring t
Authors
Paul Hershberger, Maureen K. Purcell

Long-term shedding from fully convalesced individuals indicates that Pacific herring are a reservoir for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

Processes that allow viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus to persist in the marine environment remain enigmatic, owing largely to the presence of covert and cryptic infections in marine fishes during typical sub-epizootic periods. As such, marine host reservoirs for VHS virus have not been fully demonstrated, nor have the mechanism(s) by which infected hosts contribute to virus perpetuation an
Authors
Paul Hershberger, Ashley MacKenzie, Jacob L. Gregg, M. D. Wilmot, Rachel L. Powers, Maureen K. Purcell

Differential susceptibility of Yukon River and Salish Sea stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to ichthyophoniasis

Preliminary evidence suggests that Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yukon River may be more susceptible to Ichthyophonus sp. infections than Chinook from stocks further south. To investigate this hypothesis in a controlled environment, we experimentally challenged juvenile Chinook from the Yukon River and from the Salish Sea with Ichthyophonus sp. and evaluated mortality, infection
Authors
Diane G. Elliott, Carla M. Conway, Constance L. McKibben, Ashley MacKenzie, Lucas M. Hart, Maya Groner, Maureen K. Purcell, Jacob L. Gregg, Paul Hershberger

Novel diagnostic tests for the putative agent of bacterial gill disease in Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

Nuclear inclusion X (NIX) is a gamma proteobacteria that infects the nuclei of gill epithelial cells in Pacific razor clams. NIX has been associated with clam die-offs in coastal Washington. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to detect NIX in Pacific razor clams, and assay specificity was confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Both tests were applied to evaluate NIX infe
Authors
Brooke A Travis, William N. Batts, Maya Groner, Paul Hershberger, Steven C. Fradkin, Carla M. Conway, Linda Park, Maureen K. Purcell

Anadromous coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii as a host for Argulus pugettensis (Crustacea, Branchiura): Parasite prevalence, intensity and distribution

Coastal cutthroat trout [Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Richardson, 1836)] from the marine waters of Puget Sound, WA, was documented as a new host for the ectoparasite Argulus pugettensis (Dana, 1852). The prevalence of A. pugettensis was 66% (49 of 74) on cutthroat trout and 0% (0 of 55) on coho salmon [O. kisutch (Walbaum, 1792)] collected during the winter of 2017/2018. Infestations occurred mos
Authors
James P Losee, Simon R M Jones, Caitlin A E McKinstry, William N. Batts, Paul Hershberger

Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to vibriosis from Vibrio anguillarum or V. ordalii under laboratory conditions

The ubiquity of Vibrio spp. throughout the coastal marine waters of the Pacific Northwest of North America raises questions about the susceptibility of native marine fishes, including Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). Early reports of Vibriolike disease (Rucker et al., 1954; Walford, 1958) and Vibrio sp. isolations (Pacha & Kiehn, 1969) in Pacific herring remain questionable because both occurred
Authors
Paul Hershberger, M.E.T Stinson, Brenda L Hall, Ashley MacKenzie, Jacob L. Gregg, William August Richards, James Winton