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Early Life Stage (ELS) Test

Detailed Description

Early Life Stage (ELS) tests are used as an alternative to traditional whole-animal testing methods for evaluating toxicity of chemicals. ELS for birds involve injection into the air cell of fertile eggs early in development and artificial incubation for several days at which point tissues are sampled for analysis. This biologically realistic alternative to currently available cell-based in vitro testing methods, allows the study of metabolic and multi-organ effects of the exposure.


Public Domain.