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Groundwater Level Change

Detailed Description

Top left: A map of the Virginia Coastal Plain showing the locations of USGS extensometers in relation to centers of groundwater drawdown.

Bottom left: Simulated aquifer model based on the Santa Ana Coastal Basin, California, where land subsidence due to possible variations of groundwater level throughout the twenty-first century is calculated. 

Top right: Groundwater withdrawal rates from Virginia Coastal Plain aquifers from 1900 to 2008. Modified from Heywood and Pope (2009).

Bottom right: Water levels in the Potomac aquifer at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) groundwater monitoring well 55H 1 (site 372428076561501) in New Kent County, Virginia.


Public Domain.

Bottom left figure from: Shirzaei, M., Freymueller, J., Törnqvist, T.E. et al., 2021, Measuring, modelling and projecting coastal land subsidence, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 2(1),

All other figures from: Eggleston, Jack, and Pope, Jason, 2013, Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1392, 30 p.,