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Results from our Program’s research and minerals information activities are published in USGS publications series as well as in outside journals.  To follow Minerals Information Periodicals, subscribe to the Mineral Periodicals RSS feed.

Filter Total Items: 2294

Uranium redox and deposition transitions embedded in deep-time geochemical models and mineral chemistry networks

Uranium (U) is an important global energy resource and a redox sensitive trace element that reflects changing environmental conditions and geochemical cycling. The redox evolution of U mineral chemistry can be interrogated to understand the formation and distribution of U deposits and the redox processes involved in U geochemistry throughout Earth history. In this study, geochemical modeling using
Elisha Kelly Moore, J. Li, Ao Zhang, Jihua Hao, Shaunna M. Morrison, Daniel Hummer, Nathan Yee

Deep magmatic staging chambers for crustal layered mafic intrusions: An example from the Bushveld Complex of southern Africa

The deep mafic magmatic staging chambers of layered mafic intrusions have been conjectured but not imaged. Their existence has long been postulated from geochemical models which require multiple magma injections from staging chambers to account for their multi-scale igneous layering and variations in sources and degrees of crustal contamination. For the Bushveld Complex of southern Africa, the wor
Janine Cole, Carol A. Finn, Susan J. Webb

Using stochastic point pattern analysis to track regional orientations of magmatism during the transition to cenozoic extension and Rio Grande rifting, Southern Rocky Mountains

The southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado and northern New Mexico hosted intracontinental magmatism that developed during a tectonic transition from shortening (Laramide orogeny, ca. 75 to 40 Ma) through extension and rifting. We present a novel approach that uses stochastic weighted bootstrap simulations of a large set of new and historical geochronology data to better understand how regional anis
Joshua Mark Rosera, Sean P. Gaynor, Alexey Ulianov, Urs Schaltegger

The addition of 144Nd atomic mass to routine ICP-MS analysis as a Quick Screening Tool for Approximating Rare Earth Elements (Q-STAR) in natural waters

Rare earth elements (REEs) are a class of critical minerals, all of which can have supply chain vulnerability that impacts economic security. These elements are widely measured in environmental matrices via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); however, successful quantification can require time-consuming, sample-specific optimization. While a sample-by-sample approach is appropri

Elizabeth J. Tomaszewski, Zhouming Sun, Anthony J. Bednar

Conventional rare earth element mineral deposits: The global landscape

Four conventional mineral deposit types—carbonatite, alkaline igneous, heavy mineral sand, and regolith-hosted ion-adsorption clay deposits—currently supply global markets with the rare earth elements (REEs) and rare earth oxides (REOs) necessary to meet the technological needs of global communities. The unique properties of REEs make them useful in a wide variety of applications, such as alloys,
Nora K. Foley, Robert A. Ayuso

Hydrothermal monazite and xenotime chemistry as genetic discriminators for intrusion-related and orogenic gold deposits: Implications for an orogenic origin of the Pogo gold deposit, Alaska

Attempts to geochemically distinguish between metamorphic-hydrothermal systems that form orogenic gold deposits and both reduced and oxidized magmatic-hydrothermal systems using isotopes or metal associations have proven ambiguous, particularly for orogenic gold and reduced intrusion-related gold systems. The absence of conclusive geochemical discriminators and the overlap in geologic characterist

Ryan Taylor, Garth E. Graham, Heather A. Lowers

Evidence for a high-level porphyritic intrusion below the Sunnyside epithermal vein deposit, Colorado

High-temperature quartz veins were identified in drill core at ~600 m below the Sunnyside epithermal base and pre-cious metal deposit in southwestern Colorado. The veins consist of early anhedral quartz that shows a bluish ca-thodoluminescence emission and hosts heterogenous silicate melt inclusions. The early quartz is overgrown by a later generation of quartz that exhibits euhedral termina-tions

Mario A Guzman, Thomas Monecke, T. James Reynolds, Thomas J. Casadevall

Resistivity imaging over porphyry copper systems in the Red Mountain district, southwest Colorado, USA

The Red Mountain district in southwestern Colorado produced base and precious metals hosted in breccia pipes and vein structures related to an extensive lithocap that overlies pervasive quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration. A helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic survey flown over the district yielded resistivity values that range from tens to thousand or more ohm-m, with lesser resistivity va

Eric D. Anderson, Maryla Deszcz-Pan, Douglas Yager, Kyle Eastman, Bennett Eugene Hoogenboom

Reconnaissance mineral and cathodoluminescence studies of gold occurrences in the Pogo-Black Mountain area, eastern interior Alaska, USA

The Pogo Au deposit is the largest of a number of gold occurrences in eastern interior Alaska, that occur along a broad trend from west of Pogo to Black Mountain. Some of these occurrences are hosted in amphibolite facies gneisses and others in mid-Cretaceous igneous rocks that intruded the older metamorphic rocks. All occurrences contain arsenopyrite and pyrite. Whole rock geochemical trends dist

Garth E. Graham, Erin E. Marsh, Heather A. Lowers, Ryan Taylor

Critical minerals: Germanium and cobalt in the Bornite deposit, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

Increasing demand for Ge and Co has led to a renewed interest and focus on advancing our understanding of the occurrence, distribution, and sequestration of these critical elements in known ore deposits. A workflow using a variety of analytical techniques and co-registered datasets has been developed and was applied to the carbonate hosted Bornite Cu-Co (Zn,-Ge) deposit in Alaska, where a new oreb

Katharina Pfaff, Garth E. Graham, Alex Jones, Karen D. Kelley

National- to continental-scale governmental geophysical efforts for critical mineral mapping, USA

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established robust collaborations with domestic state and international geological surveys to provide geophysical and other types of earth science data that act to underpin critical mineral research efforts across the United States, Canada, and Australia. The Earth Mapping Resource Initiative (EMRI) is a national-scale collaborative effort with state geologic
Anne E. McCafferty, Chelsea Morgan Amaral, Garth E. Graham

The Mount Weld rare earth element deposit, Western Australia: A carbonatite-derived laterite

Carbonatite-hosted rare earth element (REE) deposits are the primary source of the world’s light REEs and have the potential to be a source of heavy REEs. The Mount Weld REE deposit in Western Australia is hosted in a lateritic sequence that reflects supergene enrichment of the underlying carbonatite complex. Similar to other carbonatite-related ore deposits, ore from Mount Weld displays extreme l

Philip Verplanck, Heather A. Lowers, Adam Boehlke, Jay Michael Thompson, Ganesh Bhat, Cameron Mark Mercer